New Latin abelmoschus, from Arabic ’ab l-musk, source of the musk : ’ab, father, source of; see b in Appendix II + al-, the + musk, musk (from Persian muk; see musk).
Middle English, from Old French musc, from Late Latin muscus, from Greek moskhos, from Persian musk, probably from Sanskrit muskah “testicle”. See ms- in Appendix I.
Abelmoschus Moschatus. Semen Abelmoschi.
Grana Moschata. Ambretta. Egyptian Alcée. Bisornkorner. Ambrakorner. Target-leaved Hibiscus. Ab-elmosch. Bamia Moschata. Ketmie odorante. Galu gasturi. Capu kanassa.
The dried seed forms the base for the preparation of the mother tincture.
Plantae; Spermatophyta, Angiospermae – Flowering Plants; Dicotyledonae; Dilleniidae; Malvales; Malvaceae – Cotton / Mallow Family.
The symptomatology is the work of Dr. De Legarreta, Mexico 1961.
Description of the substance
This evergreen shrub is about 4 feet in height, having alternate, palmate leaves and large, sulphur yellow, solitary flowers with a purple base. The capsules are in the form of a five-cornered pyramid, filled with large seeds with a strong odour of musk. The capsules are used in soup and for pickles, and the greyish-brown, kidney-shaped seeds, the size of a lentil, with a strong aromatic flavour, are used by the Arabians to mix with coffee. They are used in perfumery for fats and oils, and for the adulteration of musk. 
It is found in Egypt, the East and West Indies, and Mexico. , 
Easily grown in a rich well-drained soil in a sunny position. Tolerates a pH in the range 6 to 7.8. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to about -5°c and can be grown outdoors in the milder areas of the country. The plant grows as a shrub in frost-free climates but is usually cut back to the ground in British winters. So long as these winters are not too cold, however, it can usually be grown as a herbaceous perennial with new shoots being produced freely from the root-stock. These flower in the summer. It is probably wise to apply a good mulch to the roots in the autumn[K]. It is best to cut back the stems to about 15cm long in the spring even if they have not been killed back by the frost. This will ensure an abundance of new growth and plenty of flowers in the summer. The musk mallow is widely cultivated in tropical climates for its many uses. There is at least one named form, selected for its ornamental value. ‘Mischief’ is somewhat smaller than the species, reaching a height of 50cm. 
Uses :Ambrette seeds come from a tropical hibiscus. The seeds contain an oil with a fatty-musky, slightly ambery odour. It’s most important odoriferous components are the macrocyclic musks 5(Z)-tetradecen-14-olide and 7(Z)-hexadecen-16-olide, also called ambrettolide . The oil was formerly highly appreciated in perfumery, but has now been largely replaced by synthetic musks.The seeds have a strong aroma of musk, and have been known as grani moschi. Relaxing and stimulating powers are attributed to them; and some cases, apparently authentic, have been recorded, in which they seemed to have a decided influence in casting out the poison of snakes. Possibly a further and more careful investigation of their properties, would show them to be an agreeable and useful article in cases where mild nervous prostration required a diffusible stimulant and relaxant. At present, they seem to be used for nothing beyond giving flavor to the coffee of the Arabs.
The bark is used for paper and cordage. 
Botanical uses: An
emulsion made from the seeds is regarded as antispasmodic. In Egypt the
seeds are chewed as a stomachic, nervine, and to sweeten the breath, and
are also used as an aphrodisiac and insecticide. The seeds made into an
emulsion with milk are used for itch. It is largely grown in
Constantinople as a demulcent. The leaves furnish an emollient poultice.
Antispasmodic, Nervine, Stomachic. Good for itchy skin, stomach problems, sooth nerves, breath. [Naturalnet.com]
Swamp Rose Mallow or Hibiscus moscheutos was used as an emollient poultice in tumors of the breast, whence the name Breast-root. 
Ambrette oil obtained from seeds possess an odor similar to that of musk and its aromatic constitents have long been used in perfumery industry. Different grades of essential, or aromatic absolute, are marked in Europe as high-grade perfumes (Singh et al. 1996 ) The seeds are valued for the volatile oil present in the seed coat. Seed analysis report 11.1% moisture, 31.5% crude fiber; 14.5% lipids, 13.4% starch, 2.3% protein, volatile oil (0.2-0.6% ) and ca/ 5% resin (Srivastava 1995).
Analysis of volatiles report myricetin-3-glucoside and a glycoside of cyanidin in flowers, an aromatic constituent in seeds, beta-sitosteral and its beta-D-glucoside, myricetin and its glucoside in leaves and petals and beta-sitosterol from dry fruit husk (Rastogi and Mehrotra 1991a,b).
In India, roots, leaves (rarely), and seeds of ambrette are considered valuable traditional medicines. The bitter, sweet, acrid, aromatic seeds are used as a tonic and are considered “cooling, aphrodisiac, opthalmic, cardiotonic, digestive, stomachic, constipating, carminative, pectoral, diuretic, stimulant, antispasmodic, deodorant, and effective against “kapha” and “vata,” intestinal complaints, stomatitis; and diseases of the heart, allays thirst and checks vomiting. According to Unani system of medicine seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharge, gonorrhea, leucoderma and itch. Roots and leaves are cures for gonorrhea (Agharkar 1991). Even use against venomous reptiles has been reported (Lindley 1985).
J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar 8;104(1-2):199-206. Epub 2005 Oct 3.
Mediation of beta-endorphin by myricetin to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Liu IM, Liou SS, Cheng JT.
Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu Shiang, Ping Tung Shien, Taiwan, ROC.
Streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-diabetic) rats were employed to investigate the mechanism(s) whereby myricetin, the active principle of Abelmoschus moschatus (Malvaceae), exerts its glucose-lowering effects. Myricetin was purified from the aerial portion of the plant and administered intravenously. A dose-dependent decrease in plasma glucose concentration was observed 30min following injection, in parallel with increased plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER). Myricetin enhanced BER release similarly from isolated adrenal medulla. Plasma glucose-lowering and BER-elevating effects of myricetin were both eliminated after bilateral adrenalectomy. Myricetin failed to lower plasma glucose after treatment with opioid mu-receptor antagonists and in opioid mu-receptor knockout diabetic mice. Injection of myricetin three times daily for three consecutive days resulted in increased expression of the glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in soleus muscle and in reduced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in liver; these inductions were preventable by opioid mu-receptor blockade. Findings support the conclusion that the plasma glucose-lowering action of myricetin in insulin-deficient animals is mediated by activation of opioid mu-receptors of peripheral tissues in response to increased beta-endorphin secretion. Opioid mu-receptor activation is held responsible for the enhancement of muscle GLUT 4 gene expression and the attenuation of hepatic PEPCK gene expression observed in these myricetin-treated diabetic animals.
Planta Med. 2005 Jul;71(7):617-21.
Myricetin as the active principle of Abelmoschus moschatus to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Liu IM, Liou SS, Lan TW, Hsu FL, Cheng JT.
Department of Pharmacy, Tajen Institute of Technology, Yen-Pou, Ping Tung Shien, Taiwan, R.O.C. firstname.lastname@example.org
The antihyperglycemic action of myricetin, purified from the aerial part of Abelmoschus moschatus (Malvaceae), was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). Bolus intravenous injection of myricetin decreased the plasma glucose concentrations in a dose-dependent manner in STZ-diabetic rats. Myricetin at the effective dose (1.0 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the increase of plasma glucose induced by an intravenous glucose challenge test in normal rats. A stimulatory effect of myricetin on glucose uptake of the soleus muscles isolated from STZ-diabetic rats was obtained in a concentration-dependent manner from 0.01 to 10.0 micromol/L. The increase of glucose utilization by myricetin was further characterized using the enhancement of glycogen synthesis in isolated hepatocytes of STZ-diabetic rats. These results suggest that myricetin has an ability to enhance glucose utilization to lower plasma glucose in diabetic rats lacking insulin.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2003 Dec;36(12):1613-20. Epub 2003 Nov 17.
Neuroprotection by flavonoids.
Dajas F, Rivera-Megret F, Blasina F, Arredondo F, Abin-Carriquiry JA, Costa G, Echeverry C, Lafon L, Heizen H, Ferreira M, Morquio A.
Departamento de Neuroquimica, Instituto de Investigaciones Biol gicas Clemente Estable, Universidade da Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay.
The high morbidity, high socioeconomic costs and lack of specific treatments are key factors that define the relevance of brain pathology for human health and the importance of research on neuronal protective agents. Epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of flavonoids on arteriosclerosis-related pathology in general and neurodegeneration in particular. Flavonoids can protect the brain by their ability to modulate intracellular signals promoting cellular survival. Quercetin and structurally related flavonoids (myricetin, fisetin, luteolin) showed a marked cytoprotective capacity in in vitro experimental conditions in models of predominantly apoptotic death such as that induced by medium concentrations (200 M) of H2O2 added to PC12 cells in culture. Nevertheless, quercetin did not protect substantia nigra neurons in vivo from an oxidative insult (6-hydroxydopamine), probably due to difficulties in crossing the blood-brain barrier. On the other hand, treatment of permanent focal ischemia with a lecithin/quercetin preparation decreased lesion volume, showing that preparations that help to cross the blood-brain barrier may be critical for the expression of the effects of flavonoids on the brain. The hypothesis is advanced that a group of quercetin-related flavonoids could become lead molecules for the development of neuroprotective compounds with multitarget anti-ischemic effects.
Gen Pharmacol. 1997 Aug;29(2):121-6.
Biological effects of myricetin.
Ong KC, Khoo HE.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore.
1. Myricetin is a natural bioflavonoid whose occurrence in nature is widespread among plants. 2. It has been demonstrated to possess both antioxidative properties and prooxidative properties. 3. It is a potent anticarcinogen and antimutagen, although it has been shown to promote mutagenesis with the use of the Ames Test. 4. Its therapeutic potential and benefits in cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus also are reviewed.
Clinical information, Abelmoschus hibiscus:
— Diabetes (see toxicology: antihyperglycemic action of myricetin extracted from Abel.)
— Inflammation of nerves, neuritis / neurodegeneration (see toxicology: Neuroprotection by flavonoids)
— arteriosclerosis-related pathology, cardiovascular diseases (see toxicology)
 A Modern Herbal, Mrs. Grieve
 Plants for a Future
 Castiglioni, 1790 (The History and Folklore of North American Wildflowers)
The symptomatology is the work of Dr. De Legarreta, Mexico 1961.
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