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THE EFFECT OF DIAMOND DUST ALONE AND MIXED WITH QUARTZ ON THE LUNGS OF RATS
Brit. J. industr. Med., 1958, 15, 92.
Attygalle et al. (1956) found that 1 mg. tridymite was almost entirely cleared from the lungs, where no fibrosis was found, but that it gave rise to grade 1 maximum fibrosis of the lymphnodes. The 2mg. and 5mg. of quartz used in the present experiments were not completely cleared from the lungs,and some scattered foci of fibrosis were found, particularly with the 5mg. As in the case of coal, it appeared that with diamond dust present in large amounts in the lung there is less movement of small amounts of quartz particles to the lymph nodes than there is in the absence of the diamond dust. Nussbaum (1956) has also advanced the view that innocuous dust in large concentrations may enhance the effect of small amounts of injurious dust by retarding their elimination from the lung.
An injection of 100 mg. of dust into a rat will result in permanent retention of about 50mg. (Nagelschmidt, Nelson, King, Attygalle, and Yoganathan,1957). Human lungs of 200g.dry weight are approximately 300 times heavier than rat lungs of average dry weight of 07g., so that the dose applied would correspond to finding in a human lung 15g. of total dust with 03 to 0-75g. of quartz. Such amounts are found in lungs of pathological grade 2 (reticulation) in South Wales coalworkers (King, Maguire, and Nagelschmidt, 1956), or in lungs which show radiological stage 1 of simple pneumoconiosis, according to unpublished data. These are comparatively early stages of disease not usually associated with any disability.
It is known that in man dusts with a proportion of quartz of the order of 20% or more cause silicosis. Coal-mine dusts contain on an average only 2 to 4% of quartz, and the aetiological significance of quartz in such mixed dusts is not well established. The experiments described above and similar previous experiments suggest that fibrosis is slightly more
advanced when 2 or 5% of quartz is injected with large doses of coal, graphite, or diamond, but it is not certain that similar results would be given by dust inhalation; further experiments to establish this point are in progress.
Diamond dust (100 mg.; 99% under 2,u) caused no fibrosis in rats' lungs in 400 days when introduced by the intratracheal injection technique. Small amounts of quartz (2 and 5 mg.; 95 % under 2,u) produced only a few scattered lesions of grades 1 and 2 fibrosis. Diamond dust (100mg.) combined with quartz (2 and 5 mg.) produced many more lesions which were somewhat more fibrosed (grade 2, and 2 maximum, and 3).The results are discussed in their possible relation to coal-miner's pneumo-coniosis.
SCCP (Scientific Committee on Consumer Products) Nanocosmetics 19 June 07:
in the cosmetic industry of nowadays, micronized spherical Diamond dust Nanotchnology ingredients are used for example in cosmetic products like facial cleansers.
The behaviour of Nanoparticles in suspension needs consideration with regard to cytotoxicity. Nanoparticles may diffuse, settle and agglomerate in cell culture media as a function of the environment (media, ionic strength, ph and viscosity) and particle properties (size, shape and destiny) (Teeguarden et al. 2006). Cellular dose is, therefore, affected as the factors highlighted determine the delivery rate to the cultured cells. Nanoparticle kinetics in cell culture systems must be studied as simple use of concentration of the nanomaterial in the culture medium can cause significant misinterpretation of response and uptake data observed in vitro (Teeguarden et al., 2006).
In rats, intratracheal instillation of nanosized carbon black, but also of fine titanium dioxide (anatase) and fine α-quartz resulted in an increase of hprt mutations in alveolar type II cells 15 months after the treatment (Driscoll et al., 1997). It appears that fundamental studies on the association between inflammation and genotoxicity are required before conclusions can be drawn on the importance of studying inflammation-related genotoxicity of nanoparticles.