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aqua- combination element or prefix meaning "water," from L. aqua "water," cognate with P.Gmc. *akhwo, source of O.E. ea "river," Goth. ahua "river, waters," O.N. Ægir, name of the sea-god, O.E. ieg "island;" all from PIE *akwa- "water" (cf. Skt. ap "water," Hitt. akwanzi "they drink," Lith. uppe "a river").
also distil, late 14c., from O.Fr. distiller (14c.), from L. distillare "trickle down in minute drops," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + stillare "to drip, drop," from stilla "drop." Related: Distilled; distilling.
Destilliertes Wasser / Distillated Water
Minerals; Inorganic; More Inorganic Compounds
Proving: Monika Kittler, Verl. Karl-Josef Müller
Description of the substance
Distilled water is tap water that had been boiled to steam. The steam is collected and condensed back into the liquid without impurities, chemicals, and minerals. This would be the kind of water you would want to use in your humidifier and steam iron if you live in Albuquerque, unless you don't mind having to replace these small appliances every few years due to the mineral buildup. Distilled water is also essential for chemical and pharmaceutical processing.
Demineralization, also known as deionization, is the process of removing dissolved minerals from water to make it suitable for industrial or municipal uses. There are two main techniques to demineralize water: chemically-regenerated ion exchange (IX) resins and electrically-driven membrane devices.
Distilled water is a very dilute solution of hydroxide and hydronium ions, because (like many other solvents) water reacts with itself:
2 H2O( ) H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq)
At room temperature, about 1 in every 10 000 000 water molecules has dissociated by donating a hydrogen atom to another water. Distilled water under these conditions is actually
10-7M H3O+ and 10-7M OH-.
Hydroxide ion is the caustic component of lye, and hydronium ion makes acid solutions corrosive. However, the concentrations in water are extremely low and not at all dangerous.
Distilled water also reacts with atmospheric carbon dioxide according to
H2O( ) + CO2(g) H2CO3(aq)
H2CO3(aq) + H2O( ) H3O+(aq) + HCO3-(aq)
HCO3-(aq) + H2O( ) H3O+(aq) + CO32-(aq)
which brings the pH of distilled water in an open-air container down to about 5.8.
ion Exchange Technology
Ion exchange purifies water by filtering it through a tank containing small beads of synthetic resin. The beads are chemically treated to adsorb either positively charged cations or negatively charged anions, and exchange these ions for hydrogen (H+) or hydroxyl ions (OH-) based on their relative activity compared to the resin. The ion exchange process purifies the water until all available exchange sites are used, at which point the resin is exhausted and must be regenerated by use of chemicals.
The highly purified water produced by demineralization is ideal for a variety of industrial applications, such as feed water for high pressure steam generation systems as well as for manufacturing products such as pharmaceuticals, electronic components, and consumer products such as liquid detergents.
Two-bed and Mixed-Bed Demineralization
Resin-based demineralization systems are typically designed in two-bed or mixed-bed configurations. Two-bed deionizers have separate tanks of cation and anion resins. In mixed-bed deionizers, the anion and cation resins are blended into a single tank or vessel. Generally, mixed-bed systems will produce higher quality water with a lower total capacity than two-bed systems. They are often used as post treatment for a reverse osmosis (RO) or electrodeionization (EDI) system as a final polishing step. Many industrial high purity water systems that do not incorporate membrane treatment use a three step process consisting of a cation exchange step, an anion exchange step, and a mixed bed step for polishing the water to high purity.
Ionics offers a broad range of trailer based emergency and supplemental mobile demineralizer systems which are available for temporary or long-term use. Ionics' mobile demineralizer systems feature a the three-step design, producing water of the highest quality. These systems are designed to be regenerated at Ionics' facilities so that no wastewater or regenerant chemicals are discharged at the customer's job site.
In cases where waste discharge can be accommodated, or often when equipment is needed for longer term requirements, systems can be provided for on-site regeneration, either in trailer-mounted or containerized enclosures. Ionics also offers skid-mounted mixed-bed demineralizer systems for use where space is limited, or when high capacity is not required. For example, Ionics provides mobile demineralization systems for final polishing of water which has been treated by RO or by two step demineralization for condensate polishing applications.
Membrane type demineralizer systems use physical separation, and in some processes electrical energy, to produce purified water. The most common form of membrane demineralization is RO, which produces pure water by passing it under pressure through a semi-permeable membrane. Pure water is formed on one side of the membrane, and the impurities are concentrated on the other side where they are removed to waste. Ionics provides a wide array of RO systems to meet the needs of industry.
Other membrane processes are electrodialysis reversal (EDR) and electrodeionization (EDI). In EDR and EDI, an electrical current is applied to water compartments separated by ion exchange membranes. The electricity transports the impurities through the membranes on a continuous basis without the use of regenerant chemicals. Ultra pure water is manufactured through the use of multiple technologies, such as the Ionics TMT™ and DeltaFlow® systems.
Ionics' DeltaFlow® System is a three step membrane treatment process used to produce high purity demineralized water. The DeltaFlow® System transforms drinking water to industrial grade pure water without the use of hazardous regeneration chemicals. Unlike conventional ion exchange (IX) systems which require chemical regeneration, DeltaFlow® uses electrically-driven processes to remove impurities with a combination of reverse osmosis (RO), gas transfer membranes (GTM®), and electrodeionization (EDI).
These three technologies in DeltaFlow® are pre-engineered to work together, which minimizes the costs associated with custom designing each piece of equipment in a water treatment plant. The DeltaFlow® system is available as a land-based unit mounted on skid bases for easy installation. Alternatively, the DeltaFlow® can be provided as a fully functionally-tested plant installed inside a containerized housing. This minimizes site installation costs, plant commissioning times, and project execution times.
This three step membrane treatment process is designed to produce high quality demineralized water for industrial applications. DeltaFlow® is ideal for customers who wish to reduce handling and discharge of hazardous chemicals or have a site with limited space. DeltaFlow® also excels at removing colloidal and organic material as well as dissolved gases.
Finally, Physical Proof that Distilled Water is Inferior
Dr. Masaru Emoto, a visionary researcher from Japan received certification from the Open International University as a Doctor of Alternative Medicine. Subsequently he was introduced to the concept of micro cluster water in the US and Magnetic Resonance Analysis technology. The quest thus began to discover the mystery of water.He undertook extensive research of water around the planet not so much as a scientific researcher but more from the perspective of an original thinker. At length he realized that it was in the frozen crystal form that water showed us its true nature.Dr Emoto began by studying the crystallization process of water It all started in 1994 when he took samples of water from various sources, froze a few droplets, examined them under a dark field microscope and photographed them. He photographed the crystal formations produced by water as it passes from liquid into freezing state.
It is like taking a snapshot of the water at that moment in time. He quickly realized that the crystals that formed from water depended highly on the natural health of the water. In other words, water from natural springs, healing water sources etc, formed beautiful and complex crystalline geometries - like snowflakes.
Water that had been distilled, polluted or passed through consumption had lost its inner order. This leads to the realization that natural healthy water carries an 'inner order' defining its nature and properties.