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aqua- combination element or prefix meaning "water," from L. aqua "water," cognate with P.Gmc. *akhwo, source of O.E. ea "river," Goth. ahua "river, waters," O.N. Ægir, name of the sea-god, O.E. ieg "island;" all from PIE *akwa- "water" (cf. Skt. ap "water," Hitt. akwanzi "they drink," Lith. uppe "a river").
Minerals; Inorganic; More Inorganic Compounds
there is no proving at the moment; J.Sholten used aqua pura as a therapy
Description of the substance
Due to its capacity to dissolve numerous substances in great amounts, pure water almost does not exist in the nature.
Water, the only substance on earth that can exist as a vapor, liquid, and solid, is the most abundant substance in the human body. It is the most essential nutrient. Every body cell, tissue, organ and life sustaining body process needs water to function. We cannot live without water for more than a few days - less if you are in a dry warm place where you can lose water faster. By comparison, we can live without food for weeks.
The average adult body weight is 55-75% water; the amount varies by age, body composition, gender, and a few other factors. Younger people have more water than older people do. A newborn's weight is 75% water while an elderly individual's weight is about 50% water. The percentage of body weight that is water gradually declines as we age. So how much water you have in your body partly depends on how old you are now. This is also partly due to the muscle tissue: fat tissue proportion. Younger individuals tend to have more muscle than older people do. Lean tissue (muscle) has more water than fat tissue. Therefore, the leaner the individual the higher the water proportion. Men, who on average have more lean tissue than women, have a higher percentage of water than women do. Blood is 83% water, lean muscle is 73% water, body fat is 25% water and bone is 22% water.
Water is also the most abundant nutrient in your diet. Drinking water and other liquids are the main source, but by no means the sole source. We eat a lot of water too. Juicy fruits and vegetables like lettuce, watermelon, grapefruit, and tomatoes are all more than 90% water. Other solid foods like chicken, beef, fish, breads, pasta, and even butter and margarine and dried fruit and nuts have at least some water. Oils usually don't contain any water.
What are the physical and chemical properties of water that make it so unique and necessary for living things? When you look at water, taste and smell it - well, what could be more boring? Pure water is virtually colorless and has no taste or smell. But the hidden qualities of water make it a most interesting subject.
Water's Chemical Properties
Water's chemical description is H2O, there is one atom of oxygen bound to two atoms of hydrogen. The hydrogen atoms are "attached" to one side of the oxygen atom, resulting in a water molecule having a positive charge on the side where the hydrogen atoms are and a negative charge on the other side, where the oxygen atom is. Since opposite electrical charges attract, water molecules tend to attract each other, making water kind of "sticky,"the side with the hydrogen atoms (positive charge) attracts the oxygen side (negative charge) of a different water molecule.All these water molecules attracting each other mean they tend to clump together. This is why water drops are, in fact, drops! If it wasn't for some of Earth's forces, such as gravity, a drop of water would be ball shaped -- a perfect sphere. Even if it doesn't form a perfect sphere on Earth, we should be happy water is sticky.
Water is called the "universal solvent" because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid. This means that wherever water goes, either through the ground or through our bodies, it takes along valuable chemicals, minerals, and nutrients.
Pure water has a neutral pH of 7, which is neither acidic nor basic.
Water's Physical Properties
·Water is unique in that it is the only natural substance that is found in all three states -- liquid, solid (ice), and gas (steam) -- at the temperatures normally found on Earth. Earth's water is constantly interacting, changing, and in movement.
·Water freezes at 32o Fahrenheit (F) and boils at 212o F (at sea level, but 186.4° at 14,000 feet). In fact, water's freezing and boiling points are the baseline with which temperature is measured: 0o on the Celsius scale is water's freezing point, and 100o is water's boiling point. Water is unusual in that the solid form, ice, is less dense than the liquid form, which is why ice floats.
·Water has a high specific heat index. This means that water can absorb a lot of heat before it begins to get hot. This is why water is valuable to industries and in your car's radiator as a coolant. The high specific heat index of water also helps regulate the rate at which air changes temperature, which is why the temperature change between seasons is gradual rather than sudden, especially near the oceans.
·Water has a very high surface tension. In other words, water is sticky and elastic, and tends to clump together in drops rather than spread out in a thin film. Surface tension is responsible for capillary action, which allows water (and its dissolved substances) to move through the roots of plants and through the tiny blood vessels in our bodies.
· Here's a quick rundown of some of water's properties:
Weight: 62.416 pounds per cubic foot at 32°F
Weight: 61.998 pounds per cubic foot at 100°F
Weight: 8.33 pounds/gallon, 0.036 pounds/cubic inch
Density: 1 gram per cubic centimeter (cc) at 39.2°F, 0.95865 gram per cc at 212°F
By the way:
1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 128 ounces = 231 cubic inches
1 liter = 0.2642 gallons = 1.0568 quart = 61.02 cubic inches
1 million gallons = 3.069 acre-feet = 133,685.64 cubic feet
WATER – THE PROBLEM OF PURITY
In its pure state, again water is one of the most aggressive solvents known.Called the “universal solvent,” water, to a certain degree, will dissolve virtually everything to which it is exposed. Pure water has a very high energy state and, like everything else in nature, seems to achieve energy equilibrium with its surroundings. It will dissolve the quantity of material available until the solution reaches saturation, the point at which no higher level of solids can be dissolved. Contaminants found in water
include atmospheric gases, minerals, organic materials (some naturallyoccurring, others man-made) plus any materials used to transport or store water. The hydrologic cycle (Figure 1) illustrates the process of contamination and natural purification (see photo in the sections pictures).
Natural Contamination and Purification Water evaporates from surface supplies and transpires from
vegetation directly into the atmosphere.
The evaporated water then condenses in the cooler air on nuclei such as dust particles and eventually returns to the earth’s surface as rain, snow, sleet, or other precipitation. It dissolves gases such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, and natural and industrial emissions such as nitric
and sulfuric oxides, as well as carbon monoxide. Typical rain water has a pH of 5 to 6. The result of contact with higher levels of these dissolved gases is usually a mildly acidic condition – what is today
called “acid” rain – that may have a pH as low as 4.0. As the precipitation nears the ground, it picks up many additional contaminants - airborne particulates, spores, bacteria, and emissions
from countless other sources. Most precipitation falls into the ocean, and some evaporates before
reaching the earth’s surface. The precipitation that reaches land replenishes groundwater aquifers and surface water supplies.
The water that percolates down through the porous upper crust of the earth is substantially “filtered” by that process. Most of the particulate matter is removed, much of the organic contamination
is consumed by bacterial activity in the soil, and a relatively clean, mildly acidic solution results. This acidic condition allows the water to dissolve many minerals, especially limestone, which contributes
calcium. Other geologic formations contribute minerals, such as magnesium, iron, sulfates and chlorides. The addition of these minerals usually raises groundwater pH to a range of 7 to 8.5.
This mineral-bearing water is stored in natural underground formations called aquifers. These are the source of the well water used by homes, industries and municipalities. Surface waters such as rivers, lakes and reservoirs typically contain less mineral contamination because that water did not pass through the earth’s soils. Surface waters will, however, hold higher levels of organics and undissolved particles because the water has contacted vegetation and caused runoff to pick up surface debris.
One difficulty of water purity is bacterial contamination and control of bacterial growth. Water is essential for all life. It is a necessary medium for bacterial growth because it carries nutrients. It is an essential component of living cells. Its thermal stability provides a controlled environment.
Water will support bacterial growth with even the most minute nutrient sources available.
METHODS OF WATER PURIFICATION
Water treatment can be defined as any procedure or method used to alter the composition or “behavior” of a water supply. Water supplies are classified as either surface water or groundwater. This classification often determines the condition and therefore the treatment of the water. Themajority of public or municipal water comes from surface water such as rivers, lakes and reservoirs. The majority of private water supplies consist of groundwater pumped from wells.
Municipal or Utility Water Treatment
Most municipal water distributed in a city or community today has been treated extensively. Specific water treatment methods and steps taken by municipalities to meet local, state or national standards
vary, but are categorized below.
A coarse screen, usually 50 to 100 mesh (305 to 140 microns), at the intake point of a surface water supply, removes large particulate matter to protect downstream equipment from clogging, fouling, or
Clarification is generally a multistep process to reduce turbidity and remove suspended matter. First, the addition of chemical coagulants or pH-adjustment chemicals react to form floc.
The floc settles by gravity in settling tanks or is removed as the water percolates through a gravity filter. The clarification process effectively removes particles larger than 25 microns. Clarification
steps may also be taken to reduce naturally-occurring iron, and to remove colors, taste, and odor by adding strong oxidizing agents such as chlorine. Where gravity filters are used, activated carbon
slurries are sometimes added to aid in color and odor removal. Clarification can remove a high percentage of suspended solids at a relatively low cost per gallon. However, most clarification processes will not remove all types of suspended or colloidal contamination and
remove few dissolved solids. The clarification process is not 100% efficient; therefore, water treated through clarification may still containsome suspended materials.
Others methods of Water Purification:
Lime-Soda Ash Treatment
Tank-Type Pressure Filters
Ion Exchange Systems
Distillation and Pure Steam Generators
Crossflow Filtration Systems
(Reverse Osmosis and Similar Processes)
Disinfection – Control of Microbes
Cartridge Filters 3