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arum maculatum L.
macula = L. blotch, Fleck
Common Arum, Arum vulgare, Cuckoo-pint, Spotted Arum, Wake Robin Starchwort , Adam and Eve, Lords-and-Ladies Gefleckter Aronstab, Aasblume
Plantae; Spermatophyta, Angiospermae - Flowering Plants; Monocotyledonae; Arecidae / Spadiciflorae; Arales; Araceae - Arum / Philodendron Family
Arum maculatum. I. Provings. -I. HERING. (No information about doses, but stated (Guiding Symptoms, sub voce) to have been made on three provers, " very good observers.")
Description of the substance
Arum maculatum grows in Scandinavia, Middle and South europe . It likes cool, shady undergrowth , deciduous and mixed forests and is found in lowland and hilly country until 1000m.
The shrublike plant, which is usually 15- 50cm in high, has large tuberous roots, somewhat resembling those of the Potato, oblong in shape, about the size of a pigeon's egg, brownish externally, white within and when fresh, fleshy yielding a milky juice. The flowering organs are contained in a sheath-like leaf called a spathe, within which rises a long, fleshy stem, or column called the spadix, bearing closely arranged groups of stalkless, primitive flowers. At the base are a number of flowers each consisting of a pistil only. Above these is a belt of sterile flowers, each consisting of only a purplish anther. Above the anther is a ring of glands, terminating in short threads The spadix is then prolonged into a purple, club-like extremity.
The bright leaves, conspicuous by their glossiness and purple blotches, and their halberd-like shape, are some of the first to emerge from the ground on the approach of spring, and may then be noticed under almost every hedge in shady situations; the pale green, yellowish or reddish spathe is a still more striking object when it appears in April and May. In autumn, the lowest ring of flowers form a cluster of bright scarlet, attractive berries, which remain long after the leaves have withered away, and on their short, thick stem alone mark the situation of the plant. In spite of their very acrid taste, they have sometimes been eaten by children, with most injurious results, being extremely poisonous.
fruits: july- september
poisonous parts : whole plant
active substances : Aroin, aronin, aroidin, arin, saponin, hydrocyanic acid . The greatest amount of aroin is found in the fresh root and decreases when drying.
Arecaceae (Palmae) :
Arecidae: Arecales. The Arecaceae are woody shrubs, vines, or trees comprising about 200 genera and 3,000 species that are further characterized by having large or very large leaves, each with a tubular sheathing base that typically splits open on one side at maturity. The leaves are alternate, petiolate, and palmately or pinnately cleft to once or twice compound. The inflorescence is usually paniculate and is typically subtended by one or more bracts or spathes that may become woody at maturity. The flowers are actinomorphic, generally small, and are bisexual or more often unisexual. The perianth usually consists of two whorls of 3 distinct or connate segments each, often distinguished primarily by size, the outer series or calyx being the smaller. The androecium consists typically of 6 distinct stamens in two whorls of 3 each but sometimes comprises up to several hundred variously connate or adnate stamens. The gynoecium is syncarpous or apocarpous. Syncarpous forms consist of a single compound pistil of usually 3 carpels, 1 or 3 styles, and a superior ovary with 3 locules, each containing a single basal, axile, or apical ovule. Apocarpous, forms consist of usually 3 simple pistils, each with a superior ovary containing one locule with a single basal to apical ovule. The fruit is usually a drupe.