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A Russian lady told us the right pronunciation was Badjaga.
English: Sweetwater sponge
Whole sponge Mother Tincture Q
Animalia; Porifera - Sponges; Spongillidae
see Spongia tosta
Proved by Bedford, Hahnemannian Monthly, II, 121, 1866; Allen: Encyclop. Mat. Med., Vol. II, 25; Hering: Guiding Symptoms, Vol. II, 307.
Description of the substance
Sponges are among the oldest kinds of animals. Fossils have been found of marine sponges that lived more than 500 million years ago.
Grows detached from the soil, externally having branching ramifications from the thickness of a quill to that of a finger, resembling stage's horns, with rounded corners and ends. Contains white granules, one end of which is excavated; siliceous bodies and fragments of monaxon spicules. It has Rhagon type of canal system like other higher groups, the flagellate cells are confined to certain enlargements of canals called ciliated chambers. The rest of the canals are lined by flattened cells. Internally the excurrent canals open in the paragastric cavity and externally the incurrent canals open in characteristic subdermal cavities enclosed within thin dermal membranes, perforated by dermal pores. A sexual reproduction takes place by production of gemmules, although sexual reproduction producing typical larvae occurs. The gemmules normally have cylindrical or subcylindrical spicules that are sharp or blunt or knobbed at ends. The gemmules either lie free in the substance of the sponge or are attached to its support. The complex structure of the gemmule coat with its so called pneumatic layer of loosely packed spongin is unique to fresh-water sponges. Particular, complex microscleres are often associated with the gemmule coat.
Odour disagreeable and fleshy.
The recent fresh-water sponges are grouped into two families; one containing the widespread spongilidae, the other reserved for the African Potomolepidae (Brien 1969). There is another distinctive taxonomic assemblage of fresh-water sponges recorded only from Lake Baikal, and this is considered by some authors as a separate family, the Lumbomirskiidae. It is clear that there have been at least three separate invasions of fresh water by Demospongiae belonging to the Haplosclerida. It is interesting that the ability to invade fresh water has been confined to one order; the evolution of lithistid skeletons has occurred in several.
Small portions may be detached from the mass and if kept under favorable conditions will grow to full size. Individuals of a desirable kind are sometimes cut into small pieces and attached to stakes on a frame which is lowered into the water. After a few years the sponges are found to be of a good size and shape for marketing. If a sponge dies because of unfavorable conditions, a few cells may live over and grow into new sponges. Fresh water sponges, in the autumn, die and disintegrate, except for certain cells, the gemmules, which form hard coverings and live over until spring when they grow into new sponges. The gemmules may be dry for more than a year and then start to grow if put into water. They can also live through extremely cold weather.
Distribution: Occurs in rivers, canals and lakes mainly in Russia and Europe.