Buteo jam raptor
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Buteo is the Latin name of the Common Buzzard. In the Old World, members of this genus are called "buzzards", but "hawk" is used in North America. As both terms are ambiguous, buteo is sometimes used instead, for example, by the Peregrine Fund
1) From Latin raptor (“thief”).
2)From rapiō (“seize, grab, snatch”)
Ita: falcone coda rossa
Eng: red tail hawk
German: Rotschwanz- Bussard
Animalia, Chordata, Aves, Falconiformes, Accipitridae, Buteo
Jonathan Schore - Dream proving
Description of the substance
The Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a medium-sized bird of prey, one of three species colloquially known in the United States as the "chickenhawk." It breeds almost throughout North America from western Alaska and northern Canada to as far south as Panama and the West Indies, and is one of the most common buteos in North America. There are fourteen recognized subspecies, which vary in appearance and range.
It is one of the largest members of the genus Buteo in North America, weighing from 690 to 2000 grams (1.5 to 4.4 pounds) and measuring 45–65 cm (18 to 26 in) in length, with a wingspan from 110 to 145 cm (43 to 57 in). The Red-tailed Hawk displays sexual dimorphism in size, as females are 25% larger than males. Red-tailed Hawk plumage can be variable, depending on the subspecies. These color variations are called morphs, and a Red-tailed Hawk may be light, dark, or rufous.
The Red-tailed Hawk is successful in large part because it tolerates a wide range of habitats and altitudes, including deserts, grasslands, coniferous and deciduous forests, tropical rainforests, agricultural fields and urban areas. It lives throughout the North American continent, except in areas of unbroken forest or the high arctic.It is also legally protected in Canada, Mexico and the U.S. by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918.
The Red-tailed Hawk is a popular bird in falconry, particularly in North America. Approximately 60% of all raptors under 1 year of age taken from the wild for use in American falconry are Red-tailed Hawks. The Red-tailed Hawk also has significance in Native American culture. Its feathers are considered sacred by some tribes, and are used in religious ceremonies.
A male Red-tailed Hawk may weigh from 690 to 1300 grams (1.5 to 2.9 pounds) and measure 45–56 cm (18 to 22 in), while a female can weigh between 900 and 2000 grams (2 and 4.4 pounds) and measure 50–65 cm (20 to 26 in) in length. As is the case with many raptors the Red-tailed Hawk displays sexual dimorphism in size, as females are 25% larger than males. The wingspan is from 110 to 145 cm (43 to 57 in).
Red-tailed Hawk plumage can be variable, depending on the subspecies and the region. These color variations are morphs, and are not related to molting. The western North American population, B. j. calurus, is the most variable subspecies and has three color morphs: light, dark, and intermediate or rufous. The dark and intermediate morphs constitute 10–20% of the population.
Though the markings and hue vary, the basic appearance of the Red-tailed Hawk is consistent. The underbelly is lighter than the back and a dark brown band across the belly, formed by vertical streaks in feather patterning, is present in most color variations. The red tail, which gives this species its name, is uniformly brick-red above and pink below. The bill is short and dark, in the hooked shape characteristic of raptors. The cere, the legs, and the feet of the Red-tailed Hawk are all yellow.
Immature birds can be readily identified at close range by their yellowish irises. As the bird attains full maturity over the course of 3–4 years, the iris slowly darkens into a reddish-brown hue. In both the light and dark morphs, the tail of the immature Red-tailed Hawk are patterned with numerous darker bars.
Red-tailed Hawk screamingIn flight, this hawk soars with wings in a slight dihedral, flapping as little as possible to conserve their needed energy. Active flight is slow and ponderous with deep wing beats. It sometimes hovers on beating wings and sometimes "kites", or remains stationary above the ground by soaring into the wind. When soaring or flapping its wings, it typically travels from 20 to 40 mph, but when diving may reach speeds as high as 120 mph. When the Red-tailed Hawk walks on the ground, its steps are slow and awkward. It only walks while feeding on carrion. While chasing insects or snakes at ground level, it hops in energetic, erratic patterns.
The Red-tailed Hawk is generally non-aggressive toward people and toward other birds. It is commonly attacked by crows, magpies, owls, other hawks, and even songbirds over territorial disputes, though it is generally not injured. When threatened by an intruder, a Red-tailed Hawk will generally flee rather than defend its nest.
The cry of the Red-tailed Hawk is a two to three second hoarse, rasping scream, described as kree-eee-ar, which begins at a high pitch and slurs downward  This cry is often described as sounding similar to a steam whistle. It frequently vocalizes while hunting or soaring, but vocalizes loudest in annoyance or anger, in response to an predator or a rival hawk's intrusion into its territory. At close range, it makes a croaking "guh-runk". Young hawks may utter a wailing klee-uk food cry when parents leave the nest.  Because of its robust crispness, a certain recording of the cry of the Red-tailed Hawk is a cliché cinematic sound effect. This high, fierce scream is often featured in the background of adventure movies to give a sense of wilderness to the scene. However, the cry is more commonly used for the Bald Eagle, whose own vocalizations are quite different and less robust.
Juvenile eating a voleThe Red-tailed Hawk is carnivorous, and an opportunistic feeder. Its diet is mainly composed of small mammals, but it also includes birds and reptiles. Prey varies with regional and seasonal availability, but usually includes cottontails, rodents, pheasants and quail. It may also prey on waterfowl, bats, shrews, snakes, lizards, crustaceans, insects, and when near the waters edge, carp and catfish.The Red-tailed Hawk hunts primarily from an elevated perch site. It will swoop down from a perch to seize prey, catching birds while flying, or pursuing prey on the ground from a low flight.
Prey taken can range in size from beetles to White-tailed Jackrabbits, which are double the weight of most Red-tails. In captivity in winter, an average redtail will eat about 135 g (4-5 oz) daily. The Great Horned Owl occupies a similar ecological niche nocturnally, taking similar prey. Competition may occur between the Red-tailed Hawk and the Great Horned Owl during twilight.
Parent in nest with chicks.The Red-tailed Hawk reaches sexual maturity at three years of age. It is monogamous, mating with the same individual for many years.In general, the Red-tailed Hawk will only take a new mate when its original mate dies. The same nesting territory is defended by the pair for years. During courtship, the male and female fly in wide circles while uttering shrill cries. The male performs aerial displays, diving steeply, then climbing again. After repeating this display several times, he approaches the female from above, and grasps her talons briefly with his own. Courtship flights last 10 minutes or more. Once the flight is completed, mating takes place. The male and female spiral to the ground, then land on a perch and preen each other. The female then tilts forward, allowing the male to mount her. Copulation lasts 5 to 10 seconds.
Once the pair has mated, they build a stick nest in a large tree 4 to 21 m off the ground or on a cliff ledge 35 m (115 ft) or higher above the ground, or may nest on man-made structures. The nest is generally 71 to 97 cm (28 to 38 inches) in diameter and can be up to 90 cm (3 feet) tall. The nest is constructed of twigs, and lined with bark, pine needles, corn cobs, husks, stalks, aspen catkins, or other plant matter. Fresh plant matter is deposited into the nest throughout the breeding season to keep the nest clean. Great Horned Owls compete with the Red-tailed Hawk for nest sites. Each species is known to kill the young and destroy the eggs of the other in an attempt at taking a nest site.
A clutch of 1 to 5 eggs is laid at the beginning of April, with eggs laid approximately every other day. The egg shells are a bluish-white with occasional brown splotches and have a granulated or smooth matte surface. The eggs are usually about 60 x 47 mm (2.4 x 1.9 in). They are incubated by both the male and female. The male may spend less time incubating than the female, but brings food to the female while she incubates. After 28 to 35 days, the eggs hatch over 2 to 4 days; the nestlings are altricial at hatching. The female broods them while the male provides most of the food to the female and the chicks. The female feeds the nestlings after tearing the food into small pieces. After 42 to 46 days, the chicks begin to leave the nest on short flights. The fledging period lasts up to 10 weeks, during which the young learn to fly and hunt.