Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

    Carboneum suphuratum

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    carboneum sulfuratum

    Etymology

    The English name carbon comes from the Latin carbo for coal and charcoal,[56] and from hence also comes the French charbon, meaning charcoal. In German, Dutch and Danish, the names for carbon are Kohlenstoff, koolstof and kulstof respectively, all literally meaning coal-substance.

     

    Source: Wikipedia

    Family

    Traditional name

    English: Carbon disulphide,  Alcohol Sulphuris, Alcohol Lampadii.

    Used parts

    mother tincture Q

    Classification

    CS2
    Minerals; Organic Compounds; Acyclic Carbon Compounds

    Keywords

    carbon

    Original proving

    Proved by Permerl and Noch; and intorduced by Buchner; Allen: encyclop. Mat.Med., Vol. II,617,X,425,653; Hearing: Guiding Symptoms, Vol.III, 397.
    Proved by H. H. Crippen in 1891.

    Description of the substance

    A clear, colourless or yellowish, mobile highly refractive and very inflammable liquid. Poisonous. Imiscible with water, miscible with alcohol or ether; odourfoul prepared by heating charcoal with varpourised sulphur.

    Extremely flammable [flashpoint -30°C], colourless, toxic fluid with a characteristic ethereal odour [fetid when impure]. It is a parasiticide, but is seldom used other than as an industrial solvent, in rubber works, in the extraction of fats from seeds and in the manufacture of man-made fibres. It is prepared by heating charcoal with vaporised sulphur. Burns with a blue flame.
    The highly refractive liquid is slowly anatomised in air, which gives it a very unpleasant odour when it gets old. When it is burned, there is a blue flame, and part of the sulphur is discarded unburned. The liquid is not soluble in water.
    It is a strongly endothermic compound. Therefore on the burning of carbon disulphide a lot of heat is released.
    [Vermuelen]
    In nature, very small amounts of carbon disulfide are found in gases from volcanic eruptions and in marshy areas.
    Carbon disulphide is a solvent for phosphorus, sulphur, selenium, bromine, iodine, fats, resins, and rubbers.
     

    Chemical properties:

    Carbon disulfide evaporates at room temperature, and the gas is more than twice as heavy as air. Carbon disulfide easily forms explosive mixtures with air and catches fire very easily; it is dangerous when exposed to heat, flame, sparks, or friction. Vapors can be ignited by contact with an ordinary light bulb. It is incompatible or reactive with strong oxidizers; chemically active metals such as sodium, potassium and zinc; azides; rust; halogens; and amines. When exposed to heat or flame, carbon disulfide reacts violently with chlorine, azides, ethylamine diamine, ethylene imine, fluorine, nitric oxide, and zinc. When heated to decomposition, it emits highly toxic fumes of sulfur oxide; it can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. It is miscible with anhydrous methanol, ethanol, ether, benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and oils.


    Production  
        Currently there are three manufacturing processes used to produce carbon disulphide.  Of the three
    processes, the Charcoal-Sulphur Process, Electrothermal Process, and the Methane Process, the methane-Sulphur Process is employed the most.  Other processes of production, using different pyrites or hydrocarbons have been proposed, but are not currently used (Encyclopaedia of Chemical Technology).  Through these processes, each year, more then one million tonnes of carbon disulphide is produced.
    Charcoal-Sulphur Process  
          The basic process for the Charcoal-Sulphur process has changed little since it was first developed over a decade and a half ago.  The process takes place in retort stands were molten sulphur is vaporized and superheated. This vaporized sulphur is then reacted with charcoal at 850-900°C in the retort stand at slightly above atmospheric pressure.  A multitude of gases are created from this reaction, including carbon disulphide, hydrogen sulphide, carbonyl sulphide, and inert, where the crude product of carbon disulphide is separated using a train of condensers, scrubbers, and oil absorbers.  The product is then further treated in distillation columns to increase its purity (Encyclopaedia of Industrial Chemistry).             
     
     Electrothermal Process  
          The Electrothermal process is an adaptation of the Charcoal-Sulphur Process.  In the Charcoal-Sulphur process, heat for the process is transferred through the retort stand walls, causing high heat loss to the atmosphere.  In order to make the process more efficient, the process is heated within the retort stand through the passing of electric current between graphite and steel electrodes underneath the charcoal bed. The sulphur is added in the same way as in the Charcoal-Sulphur process, and the carbon disulphide is extracted the same way (Encyclopaedia of Chemical Technology).          
     
     Methane-Sulphur Process  
           The current accepted practice, started about the 1950?s, for the synthesis of carbon disulphide is through the catalyst-aided reaction of sulphur and natural gas (methane) (The New Encyclopaedia Britannica).  The process takes place at 500 - 700°C and uses either silicon dioxide gel or aluminum oxide as a catalyst.  The catalyst is used to speed up the reaction of methane and sulphur, and isn't itself changed in the reaction. The reaction results in the production of carbon disulphide as well as the by-product dihydrogen sulphide.  

    Since sulphur is usually added in excess of the stoichiometric amounts needed, the product gases have to be cooled to 120 °C to condense the excess sulphur. Carbon disulphide is then separated from the gas stream by condensation and absorption in a solvent (mineral oil).  The carbon disulphide is then stripped from the solvent, purified in a distillation system, and then caustic washed to remove traces of dihydrogen sulphide (Encyclopaedia of Chemical Technology).

    Health Hazards  
     
         For workers in the carbon disulphide industry, many health problems exist due to the ingestion, skin contact or inhalation of carbon disulphide.   When ingested in small amounts, normally through air borne gaseous vapour, workers can experience vomiting, irregular heartbeat, or even enter a comatose state.   If ingestion occurs over a long period of time, liver, kidney, or nerve damage can result.  
         Through inhalation, again through airborne vapour, the main affects include drowsiness, chest pains, and irritation.  If inhalation of carbon disulphide continues for a long period of time, effects on the brain can occur leading to paralysis. Through skin contact, and eye contact, the same symptoms can occur as in inhalation.  Blurred vision and irritation can occur if exposed to for a long period of time. Due to the wide health affects of carbon disulphide, as well as multiple types of exposure to the chemical, it is hard to find a safe way of dealing with the chemical in the industrial sector.                                                                      
                                                                                                                     (Materials Safety Data Sheets)  
     
      Environmental Impacts  
          -  Carbon disulphide exists in small, non-persistent amounts in the environment.    
          -  Although carbon disulphide can be very toxic to humans, it is only moderately toxic to aquatic life.
          - Carbon disulphide does not leach through soil or sediment.
          - Accumulates very little in living organisms.
          - Highly volatile from water.  
        Although it can have great toxic effects when present in large amounts, it isn't found in the environment typically in amounts large enough to be detrimental.                                                    
                                                                                                                 (Materials Safety Data Sheets)