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carum carvi L.
The English term caraway also belongs to that series: It was probably mediated by Arabic (modern form al-karawya [الكراويا]) from Latin carum. Cf. the Iberic names Portuguese alcaravia and Spanish alcaravea and see also capers on the derivation of the prefix al-, which relates to the Arabic article.
Syn.: Apium carvi, Foeniculum carvi, Pimpinella carvi, Selinum carvi, Aegopodium carum
Carum carum, decussatum, aromaticum, officinale, german: Wiesen - , Feld - , Brot-
Speise - , Gemeiner Kümmel, English: Carway
Preparations from the dried fruit.
Plantae; Spermatophyta, Angiospermae - Flowering Plants; Dicotyledonae; Rosiflorae / Rosidae; Apiales; Umbelliferae / Apiaceae - Carrot / Celery Family
Description of the substance
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It is a biennial, with smooth, furrowed stems growing 1 1/2 to 2 feet high, hearing finely cut leaves, and umbels of white flowers which blossom in June. The fruitswhich are popularly and incorrectly called seeds - and which correspond in general character to those of the other plants of this large family, are laterally compressed, somewhat horny and translucent, slightly curved, and marked with five distinct, pale ridges. They evolve a pleasant, aromatic odour when bruised, and have an agreeable taste.
The leaves possess similar properties and afford an oil identical with that of the fruit. The tender leaves in spring have been boiled in soup, to give it an aromatic flavour.
Preparation for Market---Caraway does best when the seeds are sown inthe autumn, as soon as ripe, though they may be sown in March. Sow in drills, 1 foot apart, the plants when strong enough, being thinned out to about 8 inches in the rows. The ground will require an occasional hoeing to keep it clean and assist the growth of the plants. From an autumn-sown crop, seeds will be produced in the following summer, ripening about August.
When the fruit ripens, the plant is cut and the Caraways are separated by threshing. They can be dried either on trays in the sun, or by very gentle heat over a stove, shaking occasionally.
There are several varieties, the English, the Dutch and the German (obtained from plants extensively cultivated in Moravia and Prussia), and other varieties imported from Norway, Finland, Russia and the Morocco ports.
One marked peculiarity about Caraway is that it is indigenous to all parts of Europe, Siberia, Turkey in Asia, Persia, India and North Africa, and yet it is cultivated only in a few comparatively restricted areas. It grows wild in many parts of Canada and the United States, but is nowhere grown there as a field or garden crop. Its cultivation is restricted to relatively small areas in England, Holland, Germany, Finland, Russia, Norway and Morocco, where it constitutes one of the chief agricultural industries within its narrow confines. It has so far received comparatively little attention in England, where it is grown only in Essex, Kent and Suffolk, upon old grassland broken up for the purpose. Holland cultivates the main crop, producing and exporting far larger quantities than any other country. It is cultivated most extensively there in the provinces of Groningen and North Holland, in which more than half the acreage is found. In the whole country about 20,000 acres are devoted to this crop, each acre yielding about 1,000 lb., whereas while Caraway is grown commercially throughout Germany, Austria, France and parts of Spain, the character and amounts produced are very variable, and the yield per acre varies only from 400 to 700 lb., and these countries do not produce much more than they require for home consumption. Morocco produces a grade of Caraway that comes regularly into the English and American markets, but is somewhat inferior in quality. Dutch Caraway is preferred among consumers in the United States, and the bulk used there comes from Holland.
During the last year or two there has been a scarcity of Caraway, owing partly to the fact that the extensive area of land in Holland usually employed for the cultivation of the plant was devastated by floods towards the close of 1915. Much Dill seed is now being sold in its place. Quite lately, a small grower reported that she had netted L. 5 (pounds sterling) from growing Caraway on a corner of what otherwise would have been waste ground.
Trucs et astuces
Pour ne pas confondre cumin et carvi : le carvi à une note citronnée, anisée et rafraîchissante, il pique puis s'estompe; alors que le cumin est plus chaud pique et persiste.
Nome volgare: Cumino dei prati
Caratteristiche: Pianta erbacea biennale; al secondo anno si innalza un fusto alto fini a 80 cm.ramificato soprattutto nella parte superiore.
Foglie basali tripennatosette; foglie superiori più piccole bipennatosette con segmenti più sottili e acuminati.
Infiorescenze composte da ombrelle di 7-15 peduncoli; ombrellette con una decina di fiori.
Habitat: Luoghi erbosi e nei prati
Proprietà farmaceutiche: Aromatizzanti, aperitive, digestive, antispasmodiche, antisettiche.(Droga usata: frutti).
Uso in cucina: Usato per rendere gustosi prodotti alimentari.