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Matricaria recutita, Matricaria chamomilla
derived from the Greek chamai (low), and from the Latin matrix (womb)
The word chamomile is derived from Greek roots -chamos (ground) and melos (apple), referring to the fact that the plant grows low to the ground, and the fresh blooms have a pleasing apple-scent
Other Names: Matricaria chamomilla. Authemis vulgaris. Chrysanthemum. C. leucanthemum.
Common Names: German Chamomile. Bitter Chamomile. Corn feverfew. Wild Chamomile.
Plantae; Spermatophyta, Angiospermae - Flowering Plants; Dicotyledonae; Asteridae / Synandrae; Asterales; Compositae / Asteraceae - Composites / Daisy or Sunflower Family
Allen: Encyclop Mat. Med. Vol. III, 89.
Description of the substance
Botanical Information: A branched annual herb up to 60 cm; Leaves alternate, tripinnately divided below and bipinnate above, with filiform lobes. Flower heads having few white ligulate florets and numerous yellowish - orange to pale - yellow tubular disk florets on conical, hollow receptacles, the latter up to 10 mm in breadth; desk or tubular florets perfect and without papus; ray or ligulate florets from 10 to 20 pitillate; corolla of ligulate flowers, white, 3 - toothed and 4 - veined; involucre hemispherical, compressed of about 20 to 30 imbricate, oblanceolate and pubescent scales; peduncles light - brown to dusky greenish yellow; achenes more or less oboviod and faintly 3 to 5 ribbed; pappus none, or only a slight membranous crown; odour characteristic and fragrantly aromatic; taste aromatic and bitter.
Part used: Whole plant.
Microscopical: (Powder) Moderate yellowish - brown to light olive - brown, fragments of corolla from ligualate florets with papillate epidermal cells, some epidermal cells of corolla with short - stalked, glandular hairs; numeorous spinose or somewhat triangular pollen grains upto 25U in diameter with prominent conical projections of outer wall and 3 pores, papillose fragmens of fibrovascular bundles with spiral annular and reticulate tracheae and sclerenchyma fibers; fragments of involucral bracts with epidermis having elliptical stomata up to 30U in length, also tracheae and fibers; fragments of achene tissue with epidermal cells having scalariform markings or wavy longitudinal walls and parenchyme containing rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate; fragments of characteristic tissue of anthers composed of elongated cells with scalariform walls. (Pharmacopea).
Habitat: India, Asia, Europe. (Pharmacopea).
German chamomile is an annual native of Europe and western Asia,
growing from one to two feet high. The many terminal flower heads
are in comb-like formation, and are about one-half to five-eighths
of an inch in diameter. The disk flowers are yellow surrounded by
ten to twenty white ray flowers. The receptacle is smooth, conical,
elongated, and hollow inside. Good quality German chamomile is about
three times cheaper than the English variety. Major suppliers to the
world market for German chamomile include Argentina, Egypt, the
Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, Hungary and Poland.
English or Roman chamomile, a perennial native to Western Europe,
northwards to Northern Ireland, is a low-growing herb with a
creeping rhizome reaching a foot in height. It is often grown in
herb gardens as a low, mat-like ground cover. The flower heads are
about an inch across and sparse compared with German chamomile - a
solitary head sits atop each flower stalk. The disk flowers are
yellow; the ray flowers are white though sometimes absent. The
receptacle is conical and solid. One showy double-flowered variety
has large white blossoms. Nearly all the yellow disk flowers become
white ray flowers. A petalless flower form is also available.
'Treanague', a cultivar named after the estate from which it
originated, is flowerless. There are also double-flowered cultivars
(well-known by the sixteenth century). Commercial supplies come from
England, France, Belgium and Eastern Europe.
Really, there are two species: Matricaria Chamomilla is the most common, while Anthemis nobilis is best known as Roman Camomile or English Camomile or simply Noble Camomile.
The effect of Camomiles is sedative, realized through the well-known camimile tea.
The inflorescences contain an essencial oil strongly perfumed and bitter tasting, made mainly with angelic acid and its esters.
You can find camomile in abandoned fields. It grows in the spontaneous flora of mild climate countries.
La matricaria camomilla è una pianta erbacea annuale, a fusto eretto ramificato, con foglie incise in sottili lacinie e fiori riuniti in capolini, rivolti verso il basso al termine della fioritura. Il nome matricaria da "matrix", utero, indica le proprietà emmenagoghe della pianta, note già al tempo di Dioscoride. Nel II secolo d.C., Galeno utilizza la camomilla nel trattamento delle sindromi dolorose del capo.