Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

    Chromium metallicum

    Requests: If you need specific information on this remedy - e.g. a proving or a case info on toxicology or whatsoever, please post a message in the Request area www.homeovision.org/forum/ so that all users may contribute.


    Chromium metallicum

    Etymology

    The name is derived from the Greek word 'chromos-a' meaning 'colour'.

    Family

    Traditional name

    Italian: Cromo
    English: Chromium, Chrome

    Used parts

    Trituration

    Classification

    Minerals; Inorganic; Chrome

    Keywords

    see noble metals

    Original proving

    no Hahnemannian proving
    (see Chromium oxidatum and Chromicum acidum)

    Description of the substance

    Chromium compounds often have beautiful bright colours, ruby being one of them.
    The metal gets used to put a shiny coating around other substances and to increase the hardness of steel.
    Chromium makes steel easier to cut and at the same time more resistant to corrosion and erosion.
    The strongest steel contains 4% carbon, nickel and chromium. Chromium makes it tougher, harder and easier to flatten.

    Chromium is a glossy, fairly soft, gray metal. Chromium resists corrosion, and becomes bright and shiny when polished.  For these reasons, chromium is widely used to plate (coat) other metals, giving them a durable, shiny finish.  Chromium is used to plate automobile bumpers, door handles, and trim. Chromium hardens steel. Chromium-steel alloys (mixtures) are used to make armor plate for ships and tanks, safes, ball bearings, and the cutting edges of high-speed machine tools.  Alloys that contain more than 10 percent of chromium are called stainless steels.  Stainless steel does not rust easily.  It is commonly used to make eating utensils and kitchen equipment.  Chromium is the chief metal alloyed with iron, carbon, manganese, and silicon in making stainless steel.  Chromium helps steel resist corrosion.  However, the carbon in the steel reduces the ability of chromium to provide corrosion resistance.  As a result, most stainless steels are improved by reducing the amount of carbon in them to very low levels.  Nickel ranks as the second most important alloy in most stainless steels.  One or more of the following elements also may be added to iron to make stainless steel: molybdenum, titanium, columbium, aluminum, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and selenium.  Each element modifies stainless steel so it can be used for a specific purpose.  

    Chromium combines with other elements to form colored compounds. Traces of oxidized chromium give rubies and emeralds their characteristic red and green colors.  Many chromium compounds are important in industry.  Potassium dichromate is used in tanning leather.  Lead chromate is a paint pigment called chrome yellow.  Chromium compounds are used in the textile industry as mordants (substances that fix dyes permanently to fabrics), and in the aircraft industry to anodize aluminum (coat the metal with a thick, protective oxide film).  

    Chromium does not occur in nature as an uncombined metal.  It is almost always found combined with iron and oxygen in a mineral called chromite.  Major chromite-producing countries include Albania, South Africa, Turkey, and Zimbabwe.  

    Chromium has the chemical symbol Cr.  Its atomic number is 24, and its atomic weight is 51.9961.  Chromium melts at 1900ºC and boils at 2690ºC. The density is 7.14 grams per cubic centimeter at 20ºC.
    Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, a French chemist, discovered a compound of chromium and oxygen in 1797.  He prepared the free chromium metal the following year.  

    Chromite is the most important ore of chromium from which it derives its name. Chromium is an important metal and has a wide range of industrial uses.
    Chromite forms in deep ultra-mafic magmas and is one of the first minerals to crystallize. It is because of this fact that chromite is found in some concentrated ore bodies. While the magma is slowly cooling inside the Earth's crust, chromite crsytals are forming and because of their density, fall to the bottom and are concentrated there.

    Although its primary origin is ultra-mafic rocks such as peridotites, chromite is also found in metamorphic rocks such as serpentites. Chromite, as is indicated by its early crystallization is resistant to the altering affects of high temperatures and pressures. Thus it is capable of going through the metamorphic processes unscathed, while other minerals around it are being altered to serpentine, biotite and garnets. This characteristic also explains chromites use as a refractory component in the bricks and linings of blast furnaces.

    Usually magnesium is present in chromite substituting for the iron and in fact a solid solution series exists between chromite and the much rarer mineral magnesiochromite. All chromite specimens in nature contain some magnesium, likewise all natural magnesiochromites contain some iron. Magnesiochromite is grayer in color and in streak and has a slightly lower density than chromite at a specific gravity of 4.2 to 4.4.

    Elemento chimico, simbolo Cr, appartenente al sesto gruppo del sistema periodico, numero atomico 24, peso atomico 52,01; ha quattro isotopi stabili e tre radioattivi.
    Il cromo si trova nella crosta terrestre sotto forma di minerale nella cromite. È stato scoperto e preparato per la prima volta da Vauquelin, alla fine del XVIII secolo, dalla crocoite. Oggi si prepara dai suoi minerali, principalmente dalla cromite, con il metodo alluminotermico (processo Goldschmidt) oppure per riduzione con carbone; il cromo metallico si può ottenere anche per elettrolisi di una soluzione di allume di cromo e ammonio.
    Il Cromo é un metallo di colore bianco-argenteo, lucente, fragile, molto resistente agli agenti atmosferici, fonde a 1.890 °C ; aggiunto anche in piccole quantità ad altri metalli ne aumenta molto la durezza e la resistenza agli agenti chimici. È molto resistente all’ossidazione anche all’aria umida, si combina direttamente con diversi altri elementi. Nei suoi composti presenta valenza due, tre e sei; rispettivamente composti cromosi, cromici e cromati.
    Viene impiegato per preparare acciai speciali molto duri, usati per punte e trapani, corazze per navi e proiettili; come rivestimento (cromatura) di protezione di altri metalli (galvanotecnica); unito al nichel fornisce una lega nichel-cromo impiegata per resistenze elettriche.
    I suoi composti sono usati in varie industrie: l’allume e il solfato di cromo vengono impiegati come mordenti in tintoria per la preparazione di sostanze impermeabilizzanti e nella concia delle pelli.
    Il cromato di piombo “giallo di Lipsia”, il bicromato di potassio di colore giallo aranciato, il cromato d’argento rosso-bruno - solo per citarne alcuni - vengono impiegati per la preparazione dei colori minerali. Questi composti hanno la proprietà di essere molto sensibili alla luce specialmente in presenza di sostanze organiche gelatinose e zuccherine e trovano quindi largo impiego nei processi fotografici a colori (processo carbone) e nella stampa (fototipia).