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Leucantherum vulgaris, L
genus derives its name from the Greek words chrisos (golden) and anthos (flower)
Syn.: Leucanthemum vulgare
Plantae; Spermatophyta, Angiospermae - Flowering Plants; Dicotyledonae; Asteridae / Synandrae; Asterales; Compositae / Asteraceae - Composites / Daisy or Sunflower Family
Description of the substance
The oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare, syn. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum) also known as the marguerite is a widespread flowering plant native to Europe and the temperate regions of Asia. It is one of a number of plants to be called by the common name daisy. It is also sometimes called moon daisy or dog daisy.
It is a perennial prostrate herb with small flower head (not larger than 5 cm) that consists of about 20 white ray flowers and numerous yellow disc flowers, growing on the end of the stem. The stem is mostly unbranched and sprouts laterally from a creeping rootstock.
The leaves are darkgreen on both sides. The basal and middle leaves are petiolate, obovate to spoon-shaped, and serrate to dentate. The upper leaves are shorter, sessile and borne along the stem.
It produces an abundant number of flat seeds without pappus. It spreads also vegetatively by rooting underground stems.
The oxeye daisy is a typical meadow flower, growing in a variety of plant communities such as dry fields, meadows, but also under scrubs, open-canopy forests and waste places. It thrives in a wide range of conditions and prefers heavy and damp soils. It was introduced in parts of North America, Australia and New Zealand, where it is now a common weed displacing native plant species in some areas. It is difficult to control or eradicate, since a new plant can regenerate from rhizome fragments.
Reproduction: Oxeye daisy can spread both vegetatively and by seed. Sexual reproduction is more important in more open habitats (Howarth and Williams 1968).
The plant is adapted to insure outbreeding. Disk flowers produce pollen during a male stage that precedes the female stage. Primarily insect pollinated, visitors include the insects from the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Thyanoptera (Howarth and Williams 1968). Plants normally produce 1300 to 4000 fruits, but a vigorous plant may yield up to 26,000 (Dolph-Petersen 1925 cited in Howarth and Williams 1968). Champness and Morris (1948) found one million seeds per hectare in arable fileds and up to 4.2 million seeds per hectare in grasslands.
Fruits are dispersed by wind, as well as in dung and with crop seeds. Less than 40 percent of seeds passing through cattle are viable. Seeds can remain viable for long periods, but they normally germinate the year they are shed or the following spring. Studies indicate 90 to 95% germination at 20° C. Light and chilling appear to have no effect on germination rates (Howarth and Williams 1968).