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C. aurantium. C. bigaradia
Citrus is, in last consequence, derived from Greek kedromelon [κεδρομῆλον] "apple of cedar" (Greek melon [μῆλον] is cognate to Latin malum "apple"); this name, however, did not signify lemon, but citron whose culti;vation in Egypt is reported by Greek travel;lers. The Romans, then, shortened the Greek name to citrus.
English lemon, and a number of other names for that fruit, derive from Arabic al-limun [الليمون] "lemon"; see lime for more. The botanical species epithet of citron, medicus, alludes to the Central Asian people of the Medes, who are supposed to have introduced citron to the Mediterranean countries.
Bitter Seville Orange
German: Bagarade, Bittere Orange
Plantae; Spermatophyta, Angiospermae - Flowering Plants; Dicotyledonae; Rosiflorae / Rosidae; Rutales; Rutaceae - Citrus Famil
Proved and introduced by Gourbeyre; Allen: Encyclop. Mat. Med. Vol. III, 337 Clarke A Dictionary of Pract. Mat. Mad. Vol. I,
Description of the substance
The tree ranges in height from less than 10 ft (3 m) to 30 ft (9 m), is more erect and has a more compact crown than the sweet orange; has smooth, brown bark, green twigs, angular when young, and flexible, not very sharp, thorns from 1 in to 3 1/8 in (2.5-8 cm) long. The evergreen leaves (technically single leaflets of compound leaves), are aromatic, alternate, on broad-winged petioles much longer than those of the sweet orange; usually ovate with a short point at the apex; 2 1/2 to 5 1/2 in (6.5-13.75 cm) long, 1 1/2 to 4 in (3.75-10 cm) wide; minutely toothed; dark-green above, pale beneath, and dotted with tiny oil glands. The highly fragrant flowers, borne singly or in small clusters in the leaf axils, are about 1 1/2 in (3.75 cm) wide, with 5 white, slender, straplike, recurved, widely-separated petals surrounding a tuft of up to 24 yellow stamens. From 5 to 12% of the flowers are male.
The fruit is round, oblate or oblong-oval, 2 3/4 to 3 1/8 in (7-8 cm) wide, rough-surfaced, with a fairly thick, aromatic, bitter peel becoming bright reddish-orange on maturity and having minute, sunken oil glands. There are 10 to 12 segments with bitter walls containing strongly acid pulp and from a few to numerous seeds. The center becomes hollow when the fruit is full-grown.