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1838, from Fr. codéine, coined from Gk. kodeia "poppy head." Originally codeina, modern form is from 1881.
Pure codeia is prepared by trituration
Plantae; Spermatophyta, Angiospermae- Flowering Plants; Dicotyledonae; Polycarpicae (Magnoliidae); Papaverales; Papaveraceae- Poppy family
One of the alkaloids contained in opium- C18H21N03
It was first proved by Dr. E. E. Marcy, United States.
Description of the substance
Also called Methylmorphine, a naturally occuring alkaloid of opiium. It is used in medicine as a cough suppressant and narcotic analgesic drug. Its action is weaker than that of morphine. Codeine is given orally as an ingredient in syrups to relieve coughing: it has antispasmodic and sedative effects. It is also combined with narcotic analgesics and is used orally to relieve pain. In addition, it is given by hypodermic syringe for analgesia and sedation.
Codeine may be extracted directly from opium, the dried milky exudate of the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy (Papaver Somniferum ), but most of the codine used in the drug industry is produced from morphine, an opium derivative.
Codeine was first isolated from opium by the French chemist Pierre-Jean Robiquet in 1832. the sulphate and phosphate salts are used most frequently in medicine.
(Encyclopedia Britannica 2003)
In the process of extracting morphia from opium, the hydrochlorates of both morphia and codeine are formed.They are separated by treating their solution with ammonia which precipitates the greater part of the morphia, leaving the codeine in solution. The filtrate is evaporated over the water - bath to expel the excess of ammonia, the morphine salt remaining in the solution being at the same time precipitated; after filtering, the saline solution is concentrated and precipitated by potassium hydrate, and the precipitate of codeine is washed, dried and redissolved in ether whence it is deposited in crystals.
( American Pharmacopoeia 1883- RW)
Codeine is an alkaloid, obtained from opium or prepared from morphine by methylation.
An alkaloid obtained from opium, or synthetically from morphine as methylmorphine.It is used as an analgesic, a cough suppressant, or a sedative/hypnotic drug. Common side effects include nausea, constipation, itching, or confusion. Tolerance of or dependence on codeine may develop with regular use.
codeine phosphate The phosphate of the alkaloid codeine; used because of its free solubility in water.
codeine sulfate The sulfate of the alkaloid codeine.It has the same uses as codeine.