Corvus corax principalis
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The Common Raven was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work, Systema Naturae, and it still bears its original name of Corvus corax. It is the type species of the genus Corvus, derived from the Latin for "raven". The specific epithet, corax/κοραξ, is the Greek word for "raven" or "crow".The name "raven" has been applied to several other (generally large) species of the genus Corvus, though they are not necessarily closely related to Corvus corax. Some, such as the Australian Raven and Forest Raven are clearly closer to the other Australian crows. The original raven is now called the Common or Northern Raven.
The word "raven" is similar in many old Germanic languages; the Old English word for a raven was hræfn; in Old Norse it was hrafn and Old High German (h)raban, all these words are descended from a Proto-Germanic *khrabanas. An old Scottish word corby or corbie, akin to the French corbeau, has been used for both this bird and the Carrion Crow
Italiano: Corvo Imperiale
English: Common raven
Phylum: Chordata, Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes, Family: Corvidae
Genus: Corvus, Species: C. corax
Greg Bedayn, USA, 1996
Description of the substance
The foto is taken from Wikipedia, the author, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service kindly released it to the public domain (License: see here). Thank you very much!
A mature Common Raven is between 56 and 69 cm (22 to 27 inches) in length, with a wingspan of 115 to 130 cm (45 to 51 in). Recorded weights range from 0.69 to 1.63 kg (1.5 to 3.6 lb), making it one of the heaviest passerines. Birds from colder regions such as the Himalayas and Greenland are generally larger with slightly larger bills, while those from warmer regions are smaller with proportionally smaller bills. The bill is large and slightly curved. It has a longish, strongly graduated tail, mostly black iridescent plumage, and a dark brown iris. The throat feathers are elongated and pointed and the bases of the neck feathers are pale brownish-grey. Juvenile plumage is similar but duller with a blue-grey iris.
Apart from its greater size, the Common Raven differs from its cousins, the crows, by having a larger and heavier beak, a shaggy throat, and a wedge-shaped tail. The species has a distinctive, deep, hollow pruk-pruk-pruk call, which to experienced listeners is unlike that of any other corvid. Its very wide and complex vocabulary includes a high, knocking toc-toc-toc, a dry, grating kraa, a low guttural rattle and some calls of an almost musical nature.
Common Ravens can be very long-lived, especially in captive or protected conditions; individuals at the Tower of London have lived for more than 40 years. Lifespans in the wild are considerably shorter: typically only 10 to 15 years. The longest known lifespan of a banded wild Common Raven was 13 years.
Common Ravens usually travel in mated pairs, although young birds may form flocks. Relationships between Common Ravens are often quarrelsome, however they demonstrate considerable devotion to their families.
In some places they are mainly scavengers, feeding on carrion as well as the associated maggots and carrion beetles. Plant food includes cereal grains, berries and fruit. They prey on small invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, small mammals and birds. Ravens may also consume the undigested portions of animal feces, and human food waste. They store surplus food items, especially those containing fat, and will learn to hide such food out of the sight of other Common Ravens. They also raid the food caches of other species, such as the Arctic Fox. They may also associate with another canine, the Grey Wolf, as a kleptoparasite, following to scavenge carcasses in winter. 2
One of the interesting things about the Raven is that it has a very wide range of calls, with over 30 different sounds being produced.
A common visage in many legends and classic stories, the Raven is midnight black from head to tail, except for its large, short beak. The Raven has distinctly triangular tail feathers, with some ruffled breast feathers complimenting its regal head. It looks very similar to the common crow, but is a full third larger than that bird. Males are considerably larger than females, weighing in at a full pound heavier on average than the females. 3