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Tincture prepared by covering the crushed live beetles with alcohol.
Local application causes ulceration. The blood will not coagulate, blood globules disorganized, enormous swelling of whole body, swelling of feet with burning, elastic swelling of whole body which will not pit on pressure (suggesting its applicability in myxedema). There was actually no clinical use.
Of children who inhaled vapor from a kettle in which some beetles had been placed, one died and the other recovered after a serious illness resembling typhoid fever.
Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2002 Nov;133(3):611-23.
The insect abdomen--a heartbeat manager in insects?
Tartes U, Vanatoa A, Kuusik A.
Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, EE-51014, Tartu, Estonia. email@example.com
Different possibilities of coordination between circulation, respiration and abdominal movements were found in pupae of Pieris brassicae, Tenebrio molitor, Galleria mellonella and Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Coordination principles depend on metabolic rate: the need to support circulation with abdominal movements appears only at higher metabolic rates. Integration between different abdominal movements and circulation depends on species, on physiological state and, supposedly, on internal morphology. At low metabolic rates, there is no need for a very intensive hemolymph flow, and the dorsal vessel is capable of initiating and/or maintaining necessary hemolymph flow. Starting from a certain metabolic level, it is possible that the abdomen is used to accelerate hemolymph flow in the case of a large amount of hemolymph. When the necessary flow speed has been reached, relatively weak pulsation of the dorsal vessel with accessory pulsatile organs and diaphragms can easily maintain the necessary flow intensity. Heart activity may sometimes be initiated by abdominal movements via cardiac reflex or mechanical excitation. Sometimes, when heart function is weakened by histolysis, the abdomen may temporarily take over the main circulatory function or occasionally contribute to acceleration of low-speed hemolymph flow. In this case the functions are simultaneous and may be triggered by some mediator(s). In active adult insects the whole body is moving, and hence hemolymph circulates and the tracheal system is effectively ventilated by a whole body ensemble consisting of the dorsal vessel, moving organs, body appendages and accessory pulsatile organs. The mechanism of autocirculation (analogous to autoventilation in gas exchange) is a probable mechanism in circulation in adult insects.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2003 Dec;54(4):212-25.
Botanical insecticides for controlling agricultural pests: piperamides and the Colorado Potato Beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).
Scott IM, Jensen H, Scott JG, Isman MB, Arnason JT, Philogene BJ.
Biology Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
The efficacy of extracts from two Piperaceae species, Piper nigrum L. and P. tuberculatum Jacq. were evaluated using larvae and adults of the Colorado Potato Beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Young larvae and neonates were the most susceptible; a 24-h LD(50) of 0.064% extract of P. tuberculatum was determined for 4-day-old larvae, while 0.05% extract of P. nigrum reduced larval survival up to 70% within one week after treatment of potato Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae) plants. When an insecticide resistant strain of L. decemlineata larvae was tested with the P. tuberculatum extract, there was less than a 2-fold tolerance ratio compared to the 22-fold tolerance ratio to cypermethrin, a pyrethroid. Older larvae, pre-pupal stage and adults, were less sensitive to the P. nigrum extracts; the 24-h LD(50) was 0.5% (95% C.I. = 0.36, 0.65). However, the same concentration was equally effective under field conditions. In the greenhouse, P. nigrum at 0.5% was as effective at reducing adult L. decemlineata feeding as combinations with 2 separate botanical mixtures, garlic and lemon grass oil. Under field conditions, the residual activity of the P. nigrum extracts was less than 3 h. When adult L. decemlineata were placed on treated plants exposed to full sunlight for 0, 1.5, and 3 h, leaf damage progressively increased as the main active compound, piperine, was found to degrade by 80% after 3 h. An in vitro polysubstrate monoxygenase (PSMO) enzyme assay, using the substrate methoxyresorufin O-demethylation (MROD), determined that the principal P. nigrum active compound, piperine, is responsible for inhibition of that specific enzyme. The results suggest that Piper extracts could be used effectively as contact botanical insect control agents to protect potato plants from developing L. decemlineata larvae at concentrations less than 0.1%. There is also potential for Piper extracts to control insecticide resistant populations in conjunction with other integrated pest management (IPM) strategies used in conventional and organic agriculture. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.