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Toxicology - The leaves are rubifacient and vesicant, from the production of Plumbagin and other related napthaquinones. The proteolytic enzymes secreted to digest prey can, in sensitive individuals, produce a dermatitis.
Institute Pasteur, experimented by adding Drosera to ,Tbc.Bacillen in glycerine and the growth was inhibited.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Aug 17;125(1):90-6.
Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera tokaiensis suppress the activation of HMC-1 human mast cells.
Fukushima K, Nagai K, Hoshi Y, Masumoto S, Mikami I, Takahashi Y, Oike H, Kobori M.
School of Agriculture, Tokai University, Kawayou, Minamiaso-mura, Kumamoto 869-1404, Japan.
Several Northern Hemisphere Drosera species have been used in the therapy of respiratory tract infections as the traditional medicine Droserae Herba.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of Drosera species and to investigate a substitute material for Droserae Herba, we examined the effect of extracts of Drosera rotundifolia, Drosera tokaiensis and Drosera spatulata on activated T cell membrane (aTc-m)-induced inflammatory gene expression in HMC-1 human mast cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Drosera rotundifolia, Drosera spatulata and Drosera tokaiensis were collected in Japan. Herbs were extracted with 80% EtOH, and subsequently applied to OASIS HLB column. HMC-1 cells were treated with each Drosera column-adsorbed fraction for 15min, and subsequently added to aTc-m and incubated for 16h. Inflammatory gene and protein expressions were determined by DNA microarray, RT-PCR and Western blotting.
Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera tokaiensis fractions, but not the Drosera spatulata fraction, suppressed inflammatory gene expression induced by aTc-m in HMC-1 cells.
Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera tokaiensis suppressed activation of HMC-1 cells induced by aTc-m. Since the Drosera tokaiensis fraction was more effective than the traditionally used Drosera rotundifolia, Drosera tokaiensis is a likely substitute as a source of Droserae Herba.
Phytother Res. 2005 Apr;19(4):323-6.
Comparison of the antiinflammatory effects of Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera madagascariensis in the HET-CAM assay.
Paper DH, Karall E, Kremser M, Krenn L.
Lehrstuhl fur Pharmazeutische Biologie, Institut fur Pharmazie, Universitat Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg, Germany.
The antiinflammatory effects of ethanol and aqueous extracts from Drosera rotundifolia and from Drosera madagascariensis were compared in vivo in the HET-CAM assay. Both extracts from D. rotundifolia and the ethanol extract from D. madagascariensis showed remarkable efficacy at doses of 500 microg/pellet. The inhibition of the inflammation by the extracts was stronger than that by 50 microg hydrocortisone/pellet. In contrast, there was only a very weak effect observed at a dose of 500 microg/pellet of the water extract from D. madagascariensis. The chemical analyses of the extracts showed that the effect cannot be attributed to naphthoquinones, but might be due to flavonoids. Ellagic acid obviously plays an important role in the antiangiogenic effect of the Drosera extracts.
In vitro antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory effects of Drosera rotundifolia.
Krenn L, Beyer G, Pertz HH, Karall E, Kremser M, Galambosi B, Melzig MF.
Institut fur Pharmacognosie, Universitat Wien, Austria. firstname.lastname@example.org
In investigations of the anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic effects of Drosera rotundifolia two extracts were tested in different in vitro assays. An aqueous and an ethanolic extract inhibited human neutrophil elastase, achieving IC50 values of 5 and 1 microg/mL, respectively. The very low naphthoquinone concentrations in the extracts seem not to be responsible for the effect, as the pure compounds were not effective in the test system used. Thus, flavonoids like hyperoside, quercetin and isoquercitrin, which were detected in the extracts in considerable concentrations, may contribute to the activity. These substances showed activity in the assay. Ellagic acid, detected especially in the ethanolic extract in higher amounts, was substantially less active than the flavonoids. In guinea-pig ileum the extracts led to an antispasmodic effect possibly by affecting an allosteric binding site of the muscarinic M3 receptors.
Planta. 2005 Dec;222(6):1020-7. Epub 2005 Jul 28.
Tentacles of in vitro-grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) show induction of chitinase activity upon mimicking the presence of prey.
Matusikova I, Salaj J, Moravcikova J, Mlynarova L, Nap JP, Libantova J.
Institute of Plant Genetics and Biotechnology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 39A, SK, 950 07, Nitra 1, Slovak Republic.
Induction of plant-derived chitinases in the leaves of a carnivorous plant was demonstrated using aseptically grown round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.). The presence of insect prey was mimicked by placing the chemical inducers gelatine, salicylic acid and crustacean chitin on leaves. In addition, mechanical stirring of tentacles was performed. Chitinase activity was markedly increased in leaf exudates upon application of notably chitin. Application of gelatine increased the proteolytic activity of leaf exudates, indicating that the reaction of sundew leaves depends on the molecular nature of the inducer applied. In situ hybridization of sundew leaves with a Drosera chitinase probe showed chitinase gene expression in different cell types of non-treated leaves, but not in the secretory cells of the glandular heads. Upon induction, chitinase mRNA was also present in the secretory cells of the sundew leaf. The combined results indicate that chitinase is likely to be involved in the decomposition of insect prey by carnivorous plants. This adds a novel role to the already broad function of chitinases in the plant kingdom and may contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the ecological success of carnivorous plants in nutritionally poor environments.