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Horseweed contains a volatile oil (including limonene, terpineol, and linalool), flavonoids, terpenes, plant acids, and tannins.
Pest Manag Sci. 2003 Apr;59(4):459-64.
Role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant disease resistance.
Barna B, Fodor J, Pogany M, Kiraly Z.
Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Pathophysiology, H-1022 Budapest, Herman Otto 15, Hungary. Bbar@nki.hu
Membrane damage caused by the non-specific fungal toxin fusaric acid was less on pretreated than on control leaves when tobacco leaves were pretreated with anti-senescence plant hormones, such as kinetin, benzyladenine or the anti-ozonant N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)]ethyl-N'-phenylurea. Similarly, the necrosis caused by mercuric chloride was reduced by the above anti-senescence agents. In addition, in in vitro tests, leaves from selected paraquat-tolerant tobacco plants were less sensitive to Alternaria alternata (Fr) Keissler infection than those of the control paraquat-sensitive tobacco leaves. Paraquat-tolerant Conyza canadensis (L) Cronq weeds naturally selected in vineyards in Hungary showed similar inhibition of senescence to paraquat-tolerant tobacco, expressed as more green leaves and slower development. In accordance with this, the paraquat-tolerant Conyza leaves remained almost symptomless, while paraquat-sensitive plants showed severe symptoms after infection with Botrytis cinerea Pers. Oxidative burst (accumulation of hydrogen peroxide) was attenuated in TMV-infected leaves of Xanthi-nc tobacco as a result of treatment with salicylic acid or in leaves where systemic acquired resistance (SAR) had been induced by a previous TMV infection. Accordingly, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in Xanthi tobacco leaves with SAR than without SAR. However, in NahG tobacco, in which SAR cannot develop, there was no augmentation of SOD activity. All the above data support the significance of delayed senescence and antioxidants in the resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic necrosis-inducing agents.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002 Dec;50(12):1558-60.
Novel sphingolipids from Conyza canadensis.
Mukhtar N, Iqbal K, Malik A.
International Centre for Chemical Sciences, HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Pakistan.
New sphingolipids, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-hexadecanoylamino-(6E,9E)-heptacosdiene (1). 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-hexadecanoylamino-(6E,9E)-heptacosdiene-1-O-glucopyranoside (2). 1,3-dihydroxy-2-hexanoylamino-(4E)-heptadecene (3). have been isolated from Conyza canadensis, along with five known compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid, 3beta-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, and 3beta-erythrodiol, isolated for the first time from this species. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods ((1)H- and (13)C-NMR, IR and MS) and two dimensional (2D)-NMR experiments.
Pharmazie. 2003 Aug;58(8):582-6.
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils from two Asteraceae species.
Souza MC, Siani AC, Ramos MF, Menezes-de-Lima OJ, Henriques MG.
Laboratorio de Quimica de Produtos Naturais e Farmacologia Aplicada, Instituto de Tecnologia em Farmacos, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
The essential oils from two Asteraceae species, Porophyllum ruderale (PR) and Conyza bonariensis (CB) were screened for anti-inflammatory activity in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by zymosan (500 microg/cavity) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (250 ng/cavity). The main monoterpene constituents of each oil, beta-myrcene (in PR) and limonene (in CB), were tested in the LPS-induced pleurisy model and assayed also for immunoregulatory activity by measurement of the inhibition of NO and production of the cytokines, gamma-interferon and IL-4. The oils, when administered orally, were able to inhibit the LPS-induced inflammation including cell migration; with a similar effect being observed for pure limonene. Pure beta-myrcene and limonene were also effective in inhibiting production of nitric oxide at doses below the cytotoxicity of these monoterpenes. A significant inhibition of gamma-interferon and IL-4 production by limonene and beta-myrcene was also observed.