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The name Fagopyrum is derived from the Greek words fagos, beech, and pyron, wheat; = beechwheat [buckwheat]. The allusion to the beech is related to the similarity of the three-sided buckwheat fruit with beech nuts.
Other Names: Polygonum fagopyrum.
Common Names: Buckwheat. Brank, Beechwheat, French Wheat, Saracen Corn.
Names in other languages –
Boekweit - Dutch
Buchwieizen - German
Boghvede - Danish
Pahaoka - Czechoslovak
Poganka - Polish
Pohanka - Magyar
Trigo Moro - Spanish
Al-furfur - Arabic
Soba - Japanese
Le Ble Noir - French
Homeopathic preparation: T
Tincture of plant. (Bradford’s Index).
N.O. Subclass: Caryophylilidae; Order: Polygonales; Family: Polygonaceae or Buckwheat Family
Provings: Allen: Cyclopoedia, V. 4.
Hitchcock: Tr. Am. Inst. Hom., 1873. (Bradford’s Index).
Description of the substance
Description---The Buckwheat is not really a native plant, and when found apparently wild in this country, it is only on cultivated land, where it is grown as food for pheasants, which are very partial to it. One of its local names, 'French Wheat,' points to then recognition of the fact that it is a foreign grain. It is a native of Central Asia, cultivated in China and other Eastern countries as a bread-corn and was first brought to Europe from Asia by the Crusaders, and hence in France is called 'Saracen Corn.' It is a herbaceous plant, with a knotted stem a foot or two in height, round and hollow, generally green, but sometimes tinged with red, lateral branches growing out of the joints, which give off alternately from opposite sides, heart-shaped, or somewhat arrowshaped leaves, and from July to September, spreading panicles of numerous light freshcoloured flowers, which are perfumed. They are dimorphic, i.e. there are two forms of flowers, one with long styles and short stamens, the other with short styles and long stamens and are very attractive to bees. It is frequently cultivated in the Middle United States of Arnerica and also in Brabant as food for bees, and an immense quantity of Buckwheat honey is also collected in Russia. It gives a particularly pleasant flavour to honey. The nut (so-called 'seed') has a dark brown, tough rind, enclosing the kernel or seed, and is three-sided in form, with sharp angles, resembling the triangular Beech-nut, hence the name of the plant, Buckwheat, a corruption of Boek-weit, the Dutch form of the name, adopted with its culture from the Dutch, meaning 'Beech-wheat' (German Buchweizen), a translation of the Latin name Fagopyrum (Latin fagus, a beech). By some botanists, the Buckwheat is separated from the Polygonums, receiving the name Fagopyrum esculentum (Moench). The nut contains a floury endosperm, and though rarely employed in this country as human food is extensively cultivated for that purpose in Northern Europe, North America (where it also goes by the name of Indian Wheat) and in India and the East. Buckwheat flour is occasionally used for bread, but more frequently employed for cakes, which when baked have an agreeable taste, with a darkish, somewhat violet colour and are a national dish throughout America in the winter. They are baked on gridirons and eaten with maple syrup as breakfast cakes. The meal of Buckwheat is also baked into crumpets, which are popular among Dutch children and are said to be nutritious and easily digested. By the Hindus, Buckwheat, which is extensively cultivated in the Himalayas, is eaten on 'bart' or fast days, being one of the lawful foods for such occasions. Polygonum cymosum (Meism.), the Chinese perennial Buckwheat, and P. Tartaricum Ge.), the Tartary or Rough Buckwheat, also constitute an important source of flour in the East. In Japan, Buckwheat is called Soba, and its flour is prepared in various ways; kneaded with hot water to make a dough, Soba-neri; a kind of macaroni, Soba-kiri; and so on. The grains, steamed and dried, are eaten boiled or made into bread or Manju, a small cake. Its young leaves are eaten as a vegetable and its stalks are used to feed cattle. In the Russian Army, Buckwheat groats are served out as part of the soldiers' rations and cooked with butter, tallow or hemp-seed oil. In Germany it forms an ingredient in pottage, puddings and other food. Beer may be brewed from the grain, and by distillation it yields an excellent spirit, in Danzig much used in the preparation of cordial waters. The blossoms may be used for dyeing a brown colour.
---Cultivation---It is sown in May or June and ripens rapidly, thriving in the poorest soil. The flowers appear about July and the seeds ripen in October, but so tender are the plants that a single night's frost will destroy a whole crop. As a grian, Buckwheat is chiefly cultivated in England to supply food for pheasants and to feed poultry, which devour the seeds with avidity and thrive on it - hence one of its local names: Fat Hen. Mixed with bran chaff or grain, its seeds are sometimes given to horses, either whole or broken. When used as food for cattle, the hard angular rind must first be removed. The meal is considered specially good for fattening pigs: 8 bushels of Buckwheat have been said to go as far as 12 bushels of barleymeal and a bushel of the seeds to go further than 2 bushels of oats, though all farmers do not quite agree as to the superior food value of Buckwheat. If it is given to pigs at first in too large quantities, they will show symptoms of intoxication. As compared with the principal cereal grains, it is poor in nitrogenous substances and fat, its nutritious properties are greatly inferior to wheat, though as a food it ranks much higher than rice; but the rapidity and the ease with which it can be grown renders it a fit crop for very poor, badly-tilled land which will produce scarcely anything else, its culture, compared with that of other grain, being attended with little expense.
When grown by the preservers of game as a food for pheasants, it is often left standing, as it affords both food and shelter to the birds during the winter. With some farmers it is the practice to sow Buckwheat for the purpose only of ploughing it into the ground as a manure for the land. The best time for ploughing it in is when it is in full blossom, allowing the land to rest till it decomposes.
Whilst green, it serves as food for sheep and oxen, and mixed with other provender it may also with advantage be given to horses. If sown in April, two green crops may be procured during the season.
The best mode of harvesting this grain is said to be by pulling it out of the ground like flax, stripping off the seeds with the hand and collecting these into aprons or cloths tied round the waist.
In the United States, Buckwheat is sown at the end of June or beginning of July, the amount of seed varying from 3 to 5 pecks to the acre. The crop matures rapidly and continues blooming till the frosts set in, so that at harvest, which is usually set to occur just before this period, the grain is in various stages of ripeness. There, after cutting, it is allowed to lie in swaths for a few days and then set up in shocks. Threshing is done on the field in most cases.
It grows so quickly that it will kill off any weeds.
Caratteristiche: appartiene alla famiglia delle Polygonaceae: ha radice a fittone, stelo erbaceo variamente ramificato, di colore fra il verdastro e il rossiccio; le foglie sono sagittate o cordate-triangolari, alterne, peduncolate se poste inferiormente e quasi sessili se poste superiormente. L'infiorescenza è un racemo corimbiforme costituito da fiori ermafroditi con ovario monospermico bi o tristilato e con stimmi a capocchia. Gli stami sono otto, di cui tre interni e cinque esterni.Il frutto è un achenio tipicamente trigono di colore bruno argenteo o grigiastro, più o meno lucente.Il grano saraceno sopporta male il freddo, e pertanto esige di essere coltivato nella stagione primaverile-estiva durante la quale esso riesce a svolgere rapidamente il proprio ciclo biologico. La pianta manifesta accentuata adattabilità a terreni dotati di reazione acida. Per quanto nei Paesi del Nord Europa e del Centro Europa questa pianta compaia come cultura principale, in Italia rappresenta soprattutto una coltura intercalare praticata dopo un cereale autunno-invernale, come per esempio la segale o più raramente, il frumento.
Altre caratteristiche:. Il grano saraceno (Fagopyrum esculentum) è una pianta erbacea annuale che può raggiungere l'altezza di un metro. Produce un solo stelo cavo, succulento e molto fragile che presenta numerose ramificazioni; il colore, inizialmente verde e rosso, diviene bruno alla maturazione.
Le foglie sono lanceolate ma di forma variabile nei diversi stadi di sviluppo. I fiori sono raggruppati in racemi che si sviluppano alla sommità delle ramificazioni o si originano all'ascella della foglia. I fiori sono privi di petali con il calice costituito da cinque sepali di colore variante dal verde pallido al bianco, rosa o rosso. Tipicamente si riconoscono due tipi di fiori sulla base della lunghezza relativa di stami e pistilli che rendono ragione del complesso sistema di autoincompatibilità tipico della specie. L'apparato radicale è molto superficiale e poco esteso rappresentando solamente il 3-4% della sostanza secca totale.
Caratteristica peculiare del grano saraceno è quella di presentare un ciclo vitale estremamente breve (da 60 a 90 giorni) che ne consente la coltivazione anche in altitudine come seconda coltura dopo il cereale vernino. Il prodotto principale è rappresentato dalla granella che botanicamente è un achenio caratterizzato da una composizione chimica non lontana da quella dei cereali.