Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Gelsemium sempervirens

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Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Jul 1;614(1-3):128-36. Epub 2009 Apr 22.
A synthetic coumarin (4-methyl-7 hydroxy coumarin) has anti-cancer potentials against DMBA-induced skin cancer in mice.
Bhattacharyya SS, Paul S, Mandal SK, Banerjee A, Boujedaini N, Khuda-Bukhsh AR.
Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, India.
Scopoletin, an alkaloid separated from ethanolic extract of the medicinal plant, Gelsemium sempervirens (Fam: Loganiaceae) has been reported to have anti-cancer potentials. The synthetic coumarin (4-Methyl-7 hydroxy coumarin) derived from resorcinol and ethyl aceto-acetate in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid is structurally close to scopoletin, being a coumarin derivative. Whether this synthetic compound also has anti-cancer potentials has been evaluated in vivo on DMBA (7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) induced skin cancer in mice by analyzing results of several cytogenetic endpoints, Comet assay, and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Further, expressions of signal proteins like Aryl hydrocarbon receptor , p53, PCNA, Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bad, Bax, NF-kappaB Apaf, IL-6, Cytochrome-c, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 were studied by immunoblot analysis along with histology of skin and immuno-histochemical localization of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and PCNA in DMBA treated mice vis-a-vis carcinogen treated synthetic coumarin fed mice. Feeding of this synthetic coumarin induced positive modulations in expression of all biomarkers in DMBA administered mice, giving clues on its possible signaling pathway(s) - primarily through down-regulation of Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and PCNA and up-regulation of apoptotic proteins like Bax, Bad, Cytochrome c, Apaf, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, resulting in an appreciable reduction in growth of papilloma in mice. Therefore, this synthetic coumarin shows promise for use in cancer therapy, particularly in skin cancer.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008 Dec;233(12):1591-601.
In vitro studies demonstrate anticancer activity of an alkaloid of the plant Gelsemium sempervirens.
Bhattacharyya SS, Mandal SK, Biswas R, Paul S, Pathak S, Boujedaini N, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR.
Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, India.
The chemical structure of the main fluorescenting compound in the ethanolic extract (mother tincture) of the American yellow jasmine, Gelsemium sempervirens, was determined by employing (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C NMR, mass spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), correlation spectroscopy (COSY), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses. Spectrofluorometric analysis has been made of the mother tincture and its agitated serial dilutions (up to 12th potency) prepared according to a homeopathic procedure in which serial, agitated dilutions were made separately in glass and polypropylene containers. The succussions were made by employing three different modes: hand jerk, sonication, and vortexing. The chemical formula of scopoletin, the main fluorescent compound, was determined to be C(10)H(8)O(4) having a molecular weight of 192.17. Significant differences were noted between the remedies prepared in the two types of containers. Further, a comparison between any two methods of agitation revealed significant differences in fluorometric data of remedies at certain potency levels. The biological (anticancer) action of the crude extract, the alkaloid scopoletin, and 2C potency of Gelsemium sp were tested in vitro on the HeLa cell line through fluorescence microscopy, the 3(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). The role of nanoparticles presumably derived from the containers, their orientation, and their interaction with the starting substance during the dynamization process initiated by different modes of agitation could possibly be attributed to the differences noted in the fluorometric data of potencies prepared in the two types of containers and among the three different means of succussion tested.

Vet Hum Toxicol. 2002 Oct;44(5):272-3.
Multiple animal intoxications associated with Carolina jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens) ingestions.
Thompson LJ, Frazier K, Stiver S, Styer E.
Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Tifton 31794, USA.

Neurological signs characterized by marked progressive weakness and convulsions culminating in death were observed in 3 goats over a 24-h period. Affected animals were in a group of 5 goats confined toa fenced paddock: a domestic goose within the paddock was also found dead. Present in the same paddock, but unaffected, were 2 other goats and an adult cow. Five days prior to the animals' deaths, the owner had trimmed the surrounding brush and had thrown the cuttings into the enclosure. Post mortem examination of 2 of the dead goats and the goose revealed reduced muscle mass and fat stores, serous atrophy of adipose tissue, and reduced gastrointestinal contents, which included numerous leaves identified as Carolina jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens). Histologic lesions included mild diffuse neuronal degeneration and cerebellar Purkinje cell loss in all animals with mild multifocal vacuolation of brainstem and cerebral white matter in 1 goat, and myofiber atrophy with perimyseal fibrosis in the goose. Preexisting malnutrition and lack of adequate alternative forages likely resulted in ingestion of Carolina jessamine and subsequent toxicosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Carolina jessamine toxicosis in goats and geese.