Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Hydrophis cyanocinctus

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Hydrophis cyanocinctus

Etymology

hydro = water
phis = Like or pertaining to the lizards of the genus Amphisbaena.

Family

Traditional name

Used parts

Trituration of the venom

Classification

Animalia; Chordata / Vertebrata - Vertebrates; Reptilia - Reptiles; Serpentes - Snakes; Elapidae

Keywords

reptile
snake
neurotoxic
water
sea

Original proving

J. R. Reside carried out a Hahnemannian Proving in 'double blind,' from January to June 1958, on ten provers, eight of whom were men and two women. The potencies used were 6C and 30C.

Description of the substance

It is a venom of a sea-serpent, Hydrophis cyanocinctus, whose habitat is along the coasts of the Pacific Islands, Australia, India and China.

The sea snakes are a family of poisonous snakes that have adjusted well to life in the sea. The most significant adjustment is a vertical flattening of the body and an even more radical flattening of the tail; they propel themselves by moving the tail back and forth. Sea snakes mainly live in the uppers levels of the sea, but they can also dive to deeper levels, in which case they close the nostrils located above the snout. They use lungs to breathe and must, therefore, surface regularly for air. On the other hand, they can remain under water for long periods due to the presence of an extensive network of minute channels in the mucous membrane of the gums, through which they can absorb the oxygen in the water. They pump their lungs full in order to remain afloat for long periods. If they want to dive deeper, they pump their lungs empty simply by exhaling. This enables them to dive very deep.
     Some species can grow to a length of approx. 3 metres, although most never grow to more than 1.5 metres. All species have venom glands and a row of hollow, upright fangs located at the front of the mouth.
     The 50 varieties are only found in the tropics, mainly in the eastern Indian Ocean and the western Pacific in coastal waters. They are not found in the Atlantic Ocean.
     The thin head and narrow forepart of the body enable the snake to strike downward and sideward at a prey at lightning speed. The poison, which can paralyse a small fish in seconds, actually kills the prey. The members of the subfamily Hydrophinae give birth to living progeny in the sea.
     Sea snakes are eaten by sea-birds and predator fish.
     Although the venom of sea snakes has a very powerful effect on small fish, there are only a few cases of fatal encounters with fishermen. This is not so much that the venom is not poisonous to humans but rather that sea snakes do not seem to be such aggressive biters. (Vermuelen)

Any of more than 50 species of venomous marine snakes of the family Hydrophiidae. In adaptation to marine life, sea snakes have oarlike tails and flattened bodies. Their nostrils have valvelike closings and are usually on top of the snout. Several sea snakes have bodies much thicker than their heads and necks affording them greater stability when striking at prey. Some species (subfamily Laticaudinae) have enlarged belly scales like those of terrestrial snakes; the others (Hydrophiinae) have small belly scales and are helpless on land. Most are about 1 to 1.2 metres (3 to 4 feet) long; the largest, such as Laticauda semifasciata, an edible delicacy in Japan, may be twice as long.

The majority of sea snakes are found along the coasts and in the estuaries of Australia and Asia, but one, the yellow-bellied, or pelagic, sea snake (Pelamis platurus), ranges throughout the Pacific to Madagascar and the New World. This species is about 1 metre long and is dark brown or black with a bright yellow belly.

Sea snakes eat fish and sometimes bask on the surface in large groups. A few of the Laticaudinae lay eggs on land, but all others bear their young alive at sea. Sea snakes are generally slow to strike, but some, such as the annulated and beaked sea snakes (Hydrophis cyanocinctus and Enhydrina schistosa), possess potentially lethal venom.
[Enciclopedia Britannica]

Snakes in both tropical and temperate regions tend to be solitary in their habits. The denning and mating aggregations are, for the most part, the only social events of the season. Sea snakes differ in this respect, sometimes being seen travelling in large troops, which seems to indicate an urge to aggregate. Female sea snakes (Hydrophiidae) also congregate in large numbers in seawall caves at parturition time, but this may have no social significance, since it seems to be a consequence of availability of a safe place for the young to be born rather than aggregational behaviour per se. There is some tendency for females of certain species in temperate areas to use a single site for egg deposition. Hunting of food is strictly an individual act for snakes; there are no known instances of cooperative hunting, as seen in some mammal and bird species. Hiding places and basking sites are occasionally shared; this again is a consequence of availability, and in the tropics, where hiding places abound, it is rare to find more than one snake at a time under a log or a rock. Except for these few weak instances, there is no development in snake populations of social behaviour. There is no establishment of social hierarchies, no territoriality, and perhaps no dominance. The combat dance engaged in by two males of the same species, where the bodies are entwined anteriorly and raised higher and higher off the ground until finally one snake overthrows the other, certainly establishes a dominant individual, but there is no indication that awareness of this dominance is retained by either snake. A dominance that must be reestablished at every encounter does not contribute to a social structure. It has been suggested that the combat dance is essentially a homosexual encounter, with each male attempting to copulate with the other.

Sea snakes (Hydrophiidae) consist of 50 to 60 species of venomous snakes.  They are related to elapids.  Most sea snakes are 3 to 4 feet (91 to 122 centimeters) long.  In all species, the body is flattened sideways.  

Most sea snakes live in the tropical areas of the Indian and Pacific oceans.  They dwell in coastal waters and are rarely found at depths greater than 150 feet (46 meters).  Occasionally, huge groups of sea snakes are spotted in the open sea.  Scientists believe that the snakes may be massed together by tidal currents.  No sea snakes dwell in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, or the Red Sea.  

Most sea snakes give birth to live young in the water.  However, a few species come ashore and lay eggs.