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Hydroph. from a toxicological point of view, attacks the peripheral nerves, giving a symptom table similar to that of poliomyelitis.
Sea snake bite is usually felt, with small but distinct teeth marks visible, which may be multiple, mostly from non-fang teeth. Pain at the bite site is not a major feature, nor swelling. The important effects, seen in only some cases, are systemic, either paralysis and/or myolysis. If envenoming has occurred, then one of these latter two effects may be expected within 6 hours in most cases, manifested as either early paralysis (eg ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, limb or respiratory weakness) or myolysis (eg myoglobinuria, muscle pain and weakness). Secondary kidney damage may occur if there is major myolysis and there may also be severe hyperkalaemia. Coagulopathy is not seen.
symptom: muscle stiffness, difficulty speaking and swallowing, flu-like symptoms, muscular paralysis
Toxicity of Selected Snake Venoms
Species : Annulated seasnake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus) Mouse LD50 (mg/kg) : 0.35 Venom yield per snake (mg) : 5.0-8.0
Sea snake venoms have been the subject of much research, because of their post synaptic neurotoxins, many of which have been sequenced. The other important component of some sea snake venoms is myotoxin, which may dominate the clinical picture.