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Health effects of indium
Indium has no biological role. In small doses it is said to stimulate the metabolism.
Indium compounds are encountered rarely by most people. All indium compounds should be regarded as highly toxic. Indium compounds damage the heart, kidney, and liver, and may be teratogenic.
Insufficient data are available on the effect of this substance on human health, therefore utmost care must be taken.
Environmental effects of indium
Environmental effects from the substance have not been investigated.
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumour characterized by the production and secretion of calcitonin. MTC tumours may express functional somatostatin receptors (hSSTR). A significant proportion of hSSTR receptor-positive MTC tumours, including metastatic disease, may be visualized in vivo through 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy
Indium pretreatment of rats and mice has been reported to decrease the concentration of cytochrome P-450, thereby reducing the activity of some cytochrome P-450 dependent enzymatic reactions. The present study reveals that pretreatment of C57Bl/6JHan mice of both sexes with one s.c. dose of 120 mg of In2(SO4)3.5 H2O per kg of body weight decreases the concentration of cytochrome P-450 to about 65% of control levels. Neither cytochrome b5 nor NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase is affected. Hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity declines to about 75% of control values. In contrast, with coumarin substrates, a sex dependence in the direction of change is observed: in female mice indium decreases the activity to about 75%, whereas in males it enhances the activity to 140%. Moreover, with 7-(methoxy-14C)coumarin as substrate, indium-pretreated male mice exhale about 180% and females about 65% of 14CO2 compared to the corresponding controls. A close correlation between the in vivo and in vitro effects of indium on the metabolism of the coumarin derivatives is suggested. After isolation and purification of cytochrome P-450, SDS-PAGE indicates in indium-pretreated male mice an intensification of a 48.5 kDa protein band which is decreased in females. Immunological studies using antibodies raised against control female cytochrome P-450 show cross reactivity among all microsomes used in these experiments. High percentages of inhibition occur in microsomes with high molecular activity towards coumarin derivatives. The in vitro kinetics of antibody-inhibited O-deethylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin seems to obey a non- or partial-competitive type of inhibition. Indium pretreatment of mice produces sex-dependent effects on the metabolism of coumarin derivatives
We present the case of a 52-year old patient diagnosed with carcinoid tumour of the rectum with liver metastases in which treatment with somatostatin analogues (octreotide) proved very effective in the disappearance of the symptomatology and dramatic efficacy in the regression of the tumour. Imaging by octreoscan was always negative. The role of octreotide in the treatment of carcinoid tumour and the usefulness of In-111-pentetreotide (octreoscan) in the localization and prediction of the response to treatment with octreotide is discussed. We conclude that the negative result of the scintigraphic image with octreoscan does not necessarily suppose the inefficacy of octreotide treatment. We believe that this may constitute an important issue since some patients may be denied octreotide treatment in the absence of a positive octreoscan result.