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Name from Latin iuncus for rush which is from iungere meaning to join, refering to its ancient use in tying.
Effusus = loose, scattered, spread out.
English: soft rush; bog rush
German: Flatter-Binse; Simse
Dutch: pitrus; pitriet
Tincture (of root?) The exact preparation used in the proving was not recorded. Fresh plant tinctures should be used in any further experiments.
Angiospermae - Monocots - Commelinoids - Poales - Juncaceae
Dr. Wahle, provings Archiv f. Hom. Heilk., 19, part 2, p. 183. The exact preparation used in the proving was not recorded.
Description of the substance
Tall rush with soft erect or arching stems found in Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand, and common in North America.
Name for tall, grasslike plants of various families, many of which have hollow stems. The true rushes belong to the family Juncaceae, one of the oldest families of plants, closely related to the family Liliaceae (lily family). Most rushes grow in swamps. Among them are the common or bog rush (Juncus effusus), widely distributed in swamps and moist places of the Northern Hemisphere, and the slender rush (J. tenuis), found in drier surroundings. Rushes are used for basketwork, mats, chair seats, and other articles. Wicks for candles known as rushlights are made from the pith of some rushes. The wood rush (Luzula) grows on dry ground, and some species are relished by livestock. Other plants often called rushes are the bulrush; the Dutch or scouring rush, a horsetail (Equisetum hyemale), still used in some regions for scouring; and the sweet flag, or sweet rush (Acorus calamus), of the arum family. Rushes were formerly strewn on the floors of churches, castles, and other buildings. True rushes are classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Liliopsida, order Juncales, family Juncaceae. Sweet rushes, family Araceae, belong to the same class as the true rushes, but in the order Arales. Scouring rushes are classified in the division Equisetophyta.
FIELD CHARACTERISTICS: Densely cespitose (tufted) perennial with stout rhizomes and stems 2-12 dm. in height. Leaves lacking a leaf blade and auricles, only a sheath present. Involucral leaf (10)15-25(35) cm. long, appearing to be a continuation of the stem. The many-flowered inflorescence appears to "erupt" from the side of the stem. Flowers consist of 6 tepals (3 sepals + 3 petals that are similar in color and size (2-2.5(3)mm. long)) surrounding a capsule. Capsule is many- seeded. Seeds are minute (0.2-0.3 mm. long). A major division in keys to the Juncus species involves whether the inflorescence is terminal or lateral. Soft rush has a lateral inflorescence that appears to erupt from the side of the stem. Slender rush (J. tenuis) illustrates a terminal inflorescence.
ECOLOGICAL NOTES: Soft rush occurs in shallow marshes, inland fresh meadows, borders of bogs and along shores.
Soft rush is a perennial wetland plant that grows in a clump or tussock and spreads by vigorous underground rhizomes. The bright green stems (there are no leaves) are cylindrical, without nodes, rather soft, and taper to a bristle. They are smooth or slightly striated. The clump is erect or slightly arching and usually stands a little less than 3' tall. The flowers and fruits are borne in compact clusters that appear to emerge laterally a few inches below the tip of the flowering stem. Actually, the inflorescence emerges from the tip of the stem but a bract extends beyond and looks like a continuation of the stem. Several selections for horticultural use have been named. Juncus effusus 'Spiralis' (corkscrew rush) is low growing with strongly spiraling stems. The foliage of 'Cuckoo' has longitudinal yellow stripes, while 'Vittatus' has narrow creamy white bands, and 'Zebrinus' has broad white bands.
Soft rush is a cosmopolitan species. It occurs in freshwater wetlands on all continents, even Australia and New Zealand. Soft rush is a common plant in wet cow pastures, along ditches, lake and river margins, and in marshes.
Soft rush grows vigorously in heavy, wet acidic soils. In mild climates where it does not freeze to the ground, soft rush can be cut to the ground to remove old stems and encourage new growth.
Light: Full sun to partial shade.
Moisture: Soft rush normally grows in areas that are periodically flooded. It grows best in such situations to be sure, but it also can withstand periods of drying out, and it can tolerate continued submergence in up to 3" of water.
Hardiness: USDA Zones 4 - 10. In cold climates, soft rush dies to the ground and resprouts in spring with fresh green growth. In milder climates older stems turn brown and tend to accumulate, resulting in a less attractive plant.
Propagation: Propagate soft rush by division in spring.
Soft rush is often planted along the margins of ponds, canals or ditches where its tendency to spread is a good thing. It can be planted in water as deep as 3", or in damp soils that may or may not get flooded occasionally. To keep a planting under control, sow in a submerged container so the rhizomes cannot spread. Corkscrew rush (cv. 'Spiralis') grows in a tangled mass (mess?) to 14" high and is well suited to container culture. Soft rush (and especially the corkscrew form) makes a dramatic background in fresh and dried floral arrangements.
In Japan, soft rush is cultivated intensively for weaving tatami, the traditional split-rush floor covering used in Japanese homes.
Grasslike plants include the true grasses (family Poaceae) with cylindrical, jointed stems, the sedges (Cyperaceae - see papyrus and umbrella sedge) with triangular stems, and the rushes (Juncaceae) with cylindrical, unjointed stems. The rush family includes 10 genera and over 300 species. The genus Juncus has about 225 species. Millions of acres of coastal saltmarshes along Atlantic and Gulf shores from Maryland to Texas are dominated by pure stands of needle rush (Juncus romerianus).