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Hound itself, like Latin canis and Greek κυων (kuōn), derive ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European *kuon-.
Animalia; Chordata / Vertebrata - Vertebrates; Mammalia - Mammals; Carnivora - Carnivores; Canidae - Dogs
A beginning in this remedy was made by Dr. Reisig, and after Reisig it was used by Bayard.
Description of the substance
The dog is a mammal in the order Carnivora. Dogs were domesticated from wolves as recently as 15,000 years ago, or perhaps as early as 100,000 years ago based upon recent genetic fossil and DNA evidence . New evidence suggests that dogs were first domesticated in East Asia, possibly China , and the first peoples to enter North America took dogs with them from Asia. Genetic research has identified 14 ancient dog breeds, with the oldest being the Chow Chow, Shar Pei, Akita Inu, Shiba Inu and Basenji. Because many of the 14 breeds are associated with China and Japan, the theory that the dog originated in Asia seems to be likely. Over time, the dog has developed into hundreds of breeds with a great degree of variation. For example, heights at the withers range from just a few inches (such as the Chihuahua) to roughly three feet (such as the Irish Wolfhound), and colors range from white to black, with reds, grays (usually called blue), and browns occurring in a tremendous variation of patterns.
Dogs, like humans, are highly social animals and this similarity in their overall behavioral pattern accounts for their trainability, playfulness, and ability to fit into human households and social situations. This similarity has earned dogs a unique position in the realm of interspecies relationships. The loyalty and devotion that dogs demonstrate as part of their natural instincts as pack animals closely mimics the human idea of love and friendship, leading many dog owners to view their pets as full-fledged family members. Conversely, dogs seem to view their human companions as members of their pack, and make few, if any, distinctions between their owners and fellow dogs. Dogs fill a variety of roles in human society and are often trained as working dogs. For dogs that do not have traditional jobs, a wide range of dog sports provide the opportunity to exhibit their natural skills. In many countries, the most common and perhaps most important role of dogs is as companions. Dogs have lived with and worked with humans in so many roles that their loyalty has earned them the unique sobriquet "man's best friend"  Conversely, some cultures consider dogs to be unclean. In some parts of the world, dogs are raised as livestock to produce dog meat for human consumption. In many places, consumption of dog meat is discouraged by social convention or cultural taboo.
As with most domesticated species, one of the first and strongest effects seen from selective breeding is selection for cooperation with the breeding process as directed by humans. In domestic dogs, one of the behaviours that is noted is the abolition of the pair bond seen in wild canines. The ability of female domestic dog to come into estrus at any time of the year and usually twice a year is also valued. The amount of time between cycles varies greatly among different dogs, but a particular dog's cycle tends to be consistent through her life. This is also called in season or in heat. Conversely, undomesticated canine species experience estrus once a year, typically in late winter.
Most dogs come into season for the first time between 6 and 12 months, although some larger breeds delay until as late as 2 years. Like most mammals, the age that a bitch first comes into season is mostly a function of her current body weight as a proportion of her body weight when fully mature. The different rates of maturation are responsible for the menarche, not the chronological age.
Dogs do not experience menopause, although their cycles will become irregular and fertility becomes unpredictable.
Breeders and veterinarians have various methods for determining the best time to breed a bitch. Breeders rely on both the visible signs of estrus and modern testing methods when they are trying to decide the best time to breed. Visible signs of estrus (or heat) include vaginal bleeding, vulvar swelling and the female dog responding to a male dog by standing and "freezing" to allow the male dog to mount her.
Dogs bear their litters roughly 9 weeks after fertilization, although the length of gestation can vary from 56 to 72 days.
A general rule of thumb is that a mammal will produce half as many offspring as the number of teats on the mother. This rule is altered in domesticated animals since larger litters are often favoured for economic reasons and in dogs, particularly, the great range of sizes and shapes plays a role in how many healthy puppies a female can carry. An average litter consists of about six puppies, though this number may vary widely based on the breed of dog. Toy dogs generally produce from one to four puppies in each litter, while much larger breeds may average as many as 12 pups in each litter. The number of puppies also varies with the mother's age and health, the father's sperm count, the timing of the breeding, and many other factors.
Some breeds have been developed to emphasize certain physical traits beyond the point at which they can safely bear litters on their own. For example, the Bulldog often requires artificial insemination and almost always requires cesarean section for giving birth.
Since a mother can provide nutrients and care to only a limited number of offspring, humans must assist in the care and feeding when the litter exceeds approximately eight puppies