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Medicinal Action and Uses
Alterative, diuretic and diaphoretic. One of the best blood purifiers. In all skin diseases, it is a certain remedy and has effected a cure in many cases of eczema, either taken alone or combined with other remedies, such as Yellow Dock and Sarsaparilla.
The root is principally employed, but the leaves and seeds are equally valuable. Both root and seeds may be taken as a decoction of 1 OZ. to 1 1/2 pint of water, boiled down to a pint, in doses of a wineglassful, three or four times a day.
The anti-scorbutic properties of the root make the decoction very useful for boils, scurvy and rheumatic affections, and by many it is considered superior to Sarsaparilla, on account of its mucilaginous, demulcent nature; it has in addition been recommended for external use as a wash for ulcers and scaly skin disorders.
An infusion of the leaves is useful to impart strength and tone to the stomach, for some forms of long-standing indigestion.
When applied externally as a poultice, the leaves are highly resolvent for tumours and gouty swellings, and relieve bruises and inflamed surfaces generally. The bruised leaves have been applied by the peasantry in many countries as cataplasms to the feet and as a remedy for hysterical disorders.
From the seeds, both a medicinal tincture and a fluid extract are prepared, of benefit in chronic skin diseases. Americans use the seeds only, considering them more efficacious and prompt in their action than the other parts of the plant. They are relaxant and demulcent, with a limited amount of tonic property. Their influence upon the skin is due largely to their being of such an oily nature: they affect both the sebaceous and sudoriferous glands, and probably owing to their oily nature restore that smoothness to the skin which is a sign of normal healthy action.
The infusion or decoction of the seeds is employed in dropsical complaints, more especially in cases where there is co-existing derangement of the nervous system, and is considered by many to be a specific for all affections of the kidneys, for which it may with advantage be taken several times a day, before meals.
J Biomed Sci. 2002 Sep-Oct;9(5):401-9.
Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride.
Lin SC, Lin CH, Lin CC, Lin YH, Chen CF, Chen IC, Wang LY.
Department of Pharmacology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in order to potentiate the liver damage on the 21st day (1 day before the beginning of A. lappa treatment). Control group rats were given a liquid basal diet which did not contain absolute ethanol. When 300 mg/kg A. lappa was administered orally 3 times per day in both the 1-day and 7-day treatment groups, some biochemical and histopathological parameters were significantly altered, both in the ethanol group and the groups receiving ethanol supplemented with CCl(4). A. lappa significantly improved various pathological and biochemical parameters which were worsened by ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced liver damage, such as the ethanol plus CCl(4)-induced decreases in total cytochrome P-450 content and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity, increases in serum triglyceride levels and lipid peroxidation (the deleterious peroxidative and toxic malondialdehyde metabolite may be produced in quantity) and elevation of serum transaminase levels. It could even restore the glutathione content and affect the histopathological lesions. These results tended to imply that the hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol and potentiated by CCl(4) could be alleviated with 1 and 7 days of A. lappa treatment. The hepatoprotective mechanism of A. lappa could be attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidative activity, which decreases the oxidative stress of hepatocytes, or to other unknown protective mechanism(s). Copyright 2002 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel
Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Oct;4(10-11):1419-29.
Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, inhibits MAP kinases and AP-1 activation via potent MKK inhibition: the role in TNF-alpha inhibition.
Cho MK, Jang YP, Kim YC, Kim SG.
College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
Arctigenin, naturally occurring in Bardanae fructus, Saussurea medusa, Arctium lappa L., Torreya nucifera and Ipomea cairica, is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Previously, we showed that arctigenin potently inhibited the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which involved suppression of NF-kappaB activation. In the present study, we examined the effects of arctigenin on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in Raw264.7 cells and MAP kinase kinase (MKK) activity. The effect of arctigenin on activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation was also studied in association with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression. Immunoblot analysis showed that arctigenin inhibited phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, p38 kinase and JNK and their activities in Raw264.7 cells treated with LPS. Arctigenin potently inhibited the activity of MKK1 in vitro with the IC(50) value of 1 nM. Gel shift and reporter gene analyses revealed that arctigenin inhibited LPS-inducible AP-1 binding to the AP-1 consensus oligonucleotide and AP-1-mediated reporter gene expression. In view of the potential role of AP-1 in the induction of TNF-alpha, we next examined the inhibitory effects of arctigenin on the expression of TNF-alpha. Arctigenin blocked TNF-alpha production and decreased the level of TNF-alpha mRNA in the cells exposed to LPS. These results showed that arctigenin inhibited activation of MAP kinases including ERK1/2, p38 kinase and JNK through the inhibition of MKK activities, leading to AP-1 inactivation, which might, at least in part, contribute to the inhibition of TNF-alpha production.
Am J Chin Med. 1996;24(2):127-37.
Anti-inflammatory and radical scavenge effects of Arctium lappa.
Lin CC, Lu JM, Yang JJ, Chuang SC, Ujiie T.
Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical College, Taiwan.
The effects of Arctium lappa L. (root) on anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenger activity were investigated. Subcutaneous administration of A. lappa crude extract significantly decreased carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. When simultaneously treated with CCl4, it produced pronounced activities against CCl4-induced acute liver damage. The free radical scavenging activity of its crude extract was also examined by means of an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer. The IC50 of A. lappa extract on superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenger activity was 2.06 mg/ml and 11.8 mg/ml, respectively. These findings suggest that Arctium lappa possess free radical scavenging activity. The inhibitory effects on carrageenan-induced paw edema and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity could be due to the scavenging effect of A. lappa.
Cancer Lett. 2000 Jul 3;155(1):79-88.
Effects of arctiin on PhIP-induced mammary, colon and pancreatic carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats and MeIQx-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male F344 rats.
Hirose M, Yamaguchi T, Lin C, Kimoto N, Futakuchi M, Kono T, Nishibe S, Shirai T.
Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan. email@example.com
Chemopreventive effects of arctiin, a lignan isolated from Arctium lappa (burdock) seeds, on the initiation or post initiation period of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats and on 2-amino-3, 8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx)-associated hepatocarcinogenesis in male rats were examined. In experiment 1, female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given intragastric doses of 100 mg/kg body wt of PhIP once a week for 8 weeks as initiation. Groups of 20 rats each were treated with 0.2 or 0.02% arctiin during or after PhIP initiation. Control rats were fed 0.2 or 0.02% arctiin, or basal diet alone during the experimental period. Animals were killed at the end of week 48. Although the incidence of mammary carcinomas did not significantly differ among the PhIP-treated groups, multiplicity was significantly decreased in rats given 0.2 (0.7+/-0.7, P<0.05) or 0.02% (1.0+/-1.1, P<0.05) arctiin after PhIP initiation as compared with the PhIP alone controls (2.1+/-2.5). The average number of colon aberrant crypt foci was also significantly decreased in these two groups. Pancreas acidophilic foci were induced in PhIP treated animals with slight decrease in the multiplicity with arctiin during the initiation phase. For liver carcinogenesis, groups of 15 male F344 rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and starting 2 weeks later, they were administered 0.03% MeIQx in the diet, MeIQx together with 0.5% arctiin, 0.1% arctiin or basal diet for 6 weeks. They were subjected to two-third partial hepatectomy 3 weeks after DEN initiation and killed at the end of week 8 for glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) immunohistochemistry. The numbers and areas of preneoplastic GST-P positive foci were elevated by the treatment with MeIQx, and further increased by the simultaneous treatment with arctiin. These results indicate that arctiin has a protective effect on PhIP-induced carcinogenesis particularly in the mammary gland in the promotion period. On the other hand, it may have a weak co-carcinogenic influence on MeIQx-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. In addition, the results suggested that PhIP is a weak pancreatic carcinogen in female SD rats, targeting acinar cells.
COMPOSIZIONE E PROPRIETA'
I principali costituenti noti sono: inulina (fino al 60%), olio essenziale, resina, mucillagine, tannino, glucoside (lappatina), vitamine del complesso B, sali minerali. Numerosi Autori hanno documentato la presenza di un principio antibiotico presente soprattutto nelle foglie e nelle radici fresche, ad attività simil-penicillinica, attivo sui gram+. La bardana ha un'azione depurativa generale, ipoglicemizzante, diuretica, uricosurica ed antibatterica.
- Numerose forme di dermatosi: acne, seborrea, eczema, ulcerazioni (uso esterno ed interno).
- Esantemi: morbillo e rosolia.
- Iperglicemia e diabete.
- Iperuricemia e gotta.
- Litiasi urinaria.