Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Laurus nobilis

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Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2005 Nov-Dec;41(6):693-702.  
[Antioxidant properties of essential oils: autoxidation of essential oils from laurel and fennel and effects of mixing with essential oil from coriander]

Changes in the composition of essential oils from the seeds of laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling) and their mixture with essential oil from coriander were studied by capillary gas-liquid chromatography during storage in the dark and in light. Under these conditions, essential oil of laurel retained its composition for 12 months. Essential oil of fennel was rapidly oxidized in light. However, the rate of its oxidation in the dark was lower. The major component of essential oil of fennel, transanethol, had a lower antioxidant activity than essential oil of coriander. The mixture of essential oils from laurel and coriander possessed antioxidant properties and strongly inhibited the oxidation of components of the fennel oil.

Planta Med. 2005 Aug;71(8):706-10.
New sesquiterpene lactones from Laurus nobilis leaves as inhibitors of nitric oxide production.
De Marino S, Borbone N, Zollo F, Ianaro A, Di Meglio P, Iorizzi M.
Dipartimento di Chimica delle Sostanze Naturali, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy.

Two new metabolites 5alphaH,7alphaH-eudesman-4alpha,6alpha,11,12-tetraol (1) and 1beta,15-dihydroxy-5alphaH,7alphaH-eudesma-3,11(13)-dien-12,6alpha-olide ( 2) have been isolated from the methanolic extract of Laurus nobilis L. leaves. Their structures were determined through analysis of their one- and two-dimensional NMR spectral data ((1)H- and (13)C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, HMBC and ROESY). The relative stereochemistry is proposed on the basis of combined J-based configuration analysis and ROESY data. In addition, three known sesquiterpene lactones santamarine (3), reynosin (4) and costunolide (5) along with blumenol C (6) were isolated and identified by spectral means. The isolated compounds 1 - 6 were found to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophages. The most active compound 2 potently inhibited NO (2)(-) release with an IC (50) value of 0.8 microM.

Phytother Res. 2003 Aug;17(7):733-6.  
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis Linn.
Sayyah M, Saroukhani G, Peirovi A, Kamalinejad M.
Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Institute Pasteur of Iran, Pasteur avenue, Tehran, Iran.

The leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis Linn. (Lauraceae) has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in mice and rats. The essential oil exhibited: (1) a significant analgesic effect in tail-flick and formalin tests; (2) a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in the formalin-induced edema and (3) a moderate sedative effect at the anti-inflammatory doses. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the essential oil was comparable to reference analgesics and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs: morphine and piroxicam. Present results make the essential oil worthy of further investigations. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Oncol Rep. 2002 Jul-Aug;9(4):757-60.   
Specific induction of apoptosis by 1,8-cineole in two human leukemia cell lines, but not a in human stomach cancer cell line.
Moteki H, Hibasami H, Yamada Y, Katsuzaki H, Imai K, Komiya T.
Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu-city, Mie 514-0001, Japan.

We have investigated the effects of 1,8-cineole [the main component of essential oil prepared from bay-leaves Laurus nobilis L.)] on DNA of human leukemia cell lines, Molt 4B, HL-60 and stomach cancer KATO III cells. Specific induction of apoptosis by 1,8-cineole was observed in human leukemia Molt 4B and HL-60 cells, but not in human stomach cancer KATO III cells. Morphological changes showing apoptotic bodies were observed in the human leukemia HL-60 cells treated with 1,8-cineole. The fragmentations of DNA by cineole to oligonucleosomal-sized fragments that is a characteristic of apoptosis were concentration- and time-dependent in Molt 4B and HL-60 cells, but not in KATO III cells. The present study shows that the suppression growth by 1,8-cineole in the leukemia cell lines results from the induction of apoptosis by this compound.

Phytomedicine. 2002 Apr;9(3):212-6.   
Anticonvulsant activity of the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis against pentylenetetrazole- and maximal electroshock-induced seizures.
Sayyah M, Valizadeh J, Kamalinejad M.
Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Institute Pasteur of Iran, Tehran.

The leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis Linn., Lauraceae, which has been used as an antiepileptic remedy in Iranian traditional medicine, was evaluated for anticonvulsant activity against experimental seizures. The essential oil protected mice against tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock and especially by pentylenetetrazole. Components responsible for this effect may be methyleugenol, eugenol and pinene present in the essential oil. At anticonvulsant doses, the essential oil produced sedation and motor impairment. This effect seems to be related in part to cineol, eugenol and methyleugenol. Although the essential oil had an acceptable acute toxicity, further studies are required before any absolute conclusions can be drawn.

 Alcohol Alcohol. 2002 Mar-Apr;37(2):121-7.   
Inhibitory mechanism of costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Laurus nobilis, on blood-ethanol elevation in rats: involvement of inhibition of gastric emptying and increase in gastric juice secretion.
Matsuda H, Shimoda H, Ninomiya K, Yoshikawa M.
Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8412, Japan.

Basic inhibitory mechanisms of costunolide and its active component, alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone (alpha-MGBL), on blood-ethanol elevation were investigated in rats. In normal rats, blood-ethanol elevation (30 min later) induced by 20% (v/v) ethanol [5 ml/kg, per os (p.o.)] was strongly inhibited by pretreatment (30 min earlier) with costunolide and alpha-MGBL (50 mg/kg, p.o.). In pylorus-ligated rats given ethanol, blood-ethanol level (30 min) was barely elevated compared with that of normal rats. Neither costunolide nor alpha-MGBL affected the blood-ethanol elevation in pylorus-ligated rats or that induced by intraperitoneal and intraduodenal ethanol administration. Moreover, these compounds given orally induced no irreversible changes in alcohol dehydrogenase activity in rat liver. We continuously investigated the rate of gastric emptying in rats given various test meals. Costunolide and alpha-MGBL suppressed gastric emptying in rats given 20% ethanol and 1% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. alpha-MGBL (50 mg/kg), but not costunolide, suppressed gastric emptying in 20% glucose-loaded rats. In an in vitro experiment, alpha-MGBL contracted the pylorus strip at a high concentration (20 mM), which was the estimated concentration in the stomach when the substance was given orally in vivo. These findings suggested that alpha-MGBL constricted the pylorus and caused delay of gastric emptying. Moreover, both compounds increased gastric fluid secretion with pepsin and mucus. In conclusion, the inhibitory effects of costunolide and alpha-MGBL on blood-ethanol elevation were based on inhibition of gastric emptying and dilution of the ethanol concentration by the increased gastric fluid.