Magnetis polus arcticus
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magnetis polus arcticus
The word magnet comes from the Greek μαγνήτης λίθος (magnētēs lithos), which means "magnesian stone". Magnesia was an area in Ancient Greece, in present-day Manisa, Turkey where deposits of magnetite have been discovered since antiquity.
Eng: north pole of magnet
Attenuations of saccharum lactis or water charged with the influence of this pole.
The symptoms of Mag-arct. were obtained by applying it in the region of the 4th to 6th thoracic vertebra, at a distance of four or five finger's breadth from the body
Energetic Remedies / Rays / Fields of Energy
Original proving by Hahnemann
Description of the substance
The North Pole can be defined in five different ways:
The Geographic North Pole, also known as True North, is the basis for the astronomic north pole, which is defined as the point at which the axis of rotation meets the surface of the earth, with the earth rotating counter-clockwise as observed from space. It is also the northernmost point on Earth; the point at which any linear direction of travel is south. The term North Pole by itself usually refers to this definition.
The Magnetic North Pole is one of the two poles of the Earth's geomagnetic field's dipole moment, specifically the one that is closest to the geographic north pole. Navigators refer to it as the magnetic north pole because by knowing the angular declination from it to the geographic north pole where they are (usually printed on maps) they can determine the direction of the geographic north pole. Ironically, the magnetic north pole happens to be the Earth's south dipole moment, because by custom the magnetic poles are named after the geographic poles they are nearest. This pole moves in various ways, in ellipses, in a random motion over eons, and by the two poles switching places, as explained in the article below.
The Geophysical North Pole is a term designed to clarify the ambiguity caused by term magnetic north pole as used by navigators to find the geographic north pole, when the Earth is treated as a magnet, as in physics. Ironically, the geophysical north pole is the same as the magnetic south pole, since the south end of magnets (such as the end of compass needles marked S) are attracted to the geophysical north pole. The reason for this confusion is in the origin of the terms north and south pole in physics. The north and south poles of magnets (the dipoles) are named for the poles of the earth they are attracted to when used as compasses, which was one of the original uses of magnets (see magnetism).
The Geomagnetic North Pole is the north end of the axis of the magnetosphere, the geomagnetic field that surrounds earth, currently at latitude 78.5° N 69° W, which is north of Qaanaaq (Thule) in Greenland. Compasses are not affected significantly by this magnetic field.
The Northern Pole of Inaccessibility is defined as the point in the Arctic farthest from any coastline, and is at 84°03′N 174°51′W. Similar poles exist in the Pacific and Indian oceans, and there is a dry land pole of inaccessibility in the Antarctic.
North Magnetic Pole
The North Magnetic Pole is one of several locations on the Earth's surface known as the "North Pole". Its definition, as the point where the geomagnetic field points vertically downwards, i.e. the dip is 90°, was proposed in 1600 by Sir William Gilbert, a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I, and is still used. It should not be confused with the less frequently used North Geomagnetic Pole. Magnetic North is the place to which all magnetic compasses point, although since the pole marked "N" on a bar magnet points north, and only opposite magnetic poles are attracted to each other, the Earth's magnetic north is actually a south magnetic pole.
The orientation of magnetic fields of planets can flip over, an event which is called a geomagnetic reversal. The Earth's poles have done this repeatedly throughout history, and 500,000 years ago, the south magnetic pole was at the South Pole. It is thought that this occurs when the circulation of liquid nickel/iron in the Earth's outer core is disrupted and then reestablishes itself in the opposite direction. It is not known what causes these disruptions. Proof of this can be seen at mid-ocean ridges where tectonic plates move apart, and the sea bed is filled in with magma. As the magma comes out of the mantle, the magnetic particles in it are attracted slightly to the North Pole, and when the poles switch, so does the direction in which the metallic elements face. Therefore, on the sea bed, parallel bands of alternating magnetic fields are found.
The first expedition to reach this pole was led by James Clark Ross, who found it at Cape Adelaide on the Boothia Peninsula on June 1, 1831. Roald Amundsen found Magnetic North in a slightly different location in 1903. The third observation of Magnetic North was by Canadian government scientists Paul Serson and Jack Clark, of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, who found the pole at Allen Lake on Prince of Wales Island.
The Canadian government has made several measurements since, which show that the North Magnetic Pole is continually moving northwest. In 1996 an expedition certified its location by magnetometer and theodolite at 78°35.7′N 104°11.9′W. Its location (in 2005) is 82°07′N 114°04′Wt, near Ellesmere Island, the biggest of the Queen Elizabeth Islands, in Canada. During the 20th century it has moved 1100 km, and since 1970 its rate of motion has accelerated from 9 km/year to 41 km/year (2001-2003 average; see also Polar drift). If it maintains its present speed and direction it will reach Siberia in about 50 years, but it is expected to veer from its present course and slow down.
This movement is on top of a daily or diurnal variation in which Magnetic North describes a rough ellipse, with a maximum deviation of 80 km from its mean position. This effect is due to disturbances of the geomagnetic field by the sun. A line drawn from one magnetic pole to the other does not go through the centre of the Earth; it actually misses it by about 530 km.
The angular difference between Magnetic North and true North varies with location, and is called the magnetic declination.
North Geomagnetic Pole
The North Geomagnetic Pole is the pole of the Earth's geomagnetic field closest to true north. The first-order approximation of the Earth's magnetic field is that of a single magnetic dipole (like a bar magnet), tilted about 11° with respect to Earth's rotation axis and centered at the Earth's core. The residuals form the nondipole field. The Geomagnetic poles are the places where the axis of this dipole intersects the Earth's surface. Because the dipole approximation is far from a perfect fit to the Earth's magnetic field, the magnetic field is not quite vertical at the geomagnetic poles. The locations of true vertical field orientation are the magnetic poles, and these are about 30 degrees of longitude away from the geomagnetic poles.
Like the North Magnetic Pole, the geomagnetic north pole is a south magnetic pole, because it attracts the north pole of a bar magnet. It is the centre of the region in the magnetosphere in which the Aurora Borealis can be seen. Its present location is 78.5° N 69° W, near Qaanaaq in Greenland, however it is now drifting away from North America and toward Siberia. The first voyage to this pole was by David Hempleman-Adams in 1992.
Permanent magnets and dipoles
All magnets have at least two poles: that is, all magnets have at least one north pole and at least one south pole. The poles are not a pair of things on or inside the magnet. They are a concept used to discuss and describe magnets. In the image at the top of this page, the poles look like specific locations, because the highest surface intensity of the field occurs at the poles, but this does not mean that they are specific locations.
To understand the concept of pole, it can be imagined that a row of people who are all facing the same direction and standing in line. While there is a "face" end of the line and a "back" end of the line, there is no one place where all of the faces are and all of the backs are. The person at the front of the face end has a back; and the person at the back end has a face. If the line is divided into two shorter lines, each one of the shorter lines still has a face end and a back end. Even if the line is pulled completely apart so that there are just individuals standing around, each one of the individuals still has a face and a back. This can continue without end.
The same holds true with magnets. There is not one place where all of the north or south poles are. If a magnet is divided in two, two magnets will result and both magnets will have a north and a south pole. Those smaller magnets can then be divided, and all of the resulting pieces will have both a north and south pole. In most instances, if the material continues to be broken into smaller and smaller pieces there will be a point where the pieces are too small to retain a net magnetic field. They won't become individual north or south poles though; instead, they will just lose the ability to maintain a net field. Some materials, however, can be divided down to the molecular level and still maintain a net field with both a north and a south pole. There are theories involving the possibility of north and south magnetic monopoles, but no magnetic monopole has ever been found.