Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Manganum carbonicum

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By a chronical intoxication of mangan (inhalation of Maganoxid)occurs the typical Manganismus.
Overdose: Results of manganese poisoning have been revealed, especially on workers in the metal processing and mining industries, where the workers have been exposed to manganese oxide dust. A chronic, long-term overexposure to manganese can generate higher risk of dementia. Also higher blood pressure, headache, learning disorders, neurological Parkinson's-like disorders, psychosis and breathing apparatus illnesses are reported to be caused by manganese poisoning.
Manganismus goes through several gradually changing stages of development. The first stage is characterised by a number of rather trivial general disturbances, such as loss of appetite, dizziness, sense of weakness, increasing nervousness and irritability (in terms of thyroid toxic appearance), then followed by drowsiness, increasing need of sleep, apathy, and lack of libido. In some cases, these symptoms are simultaneously accompanied or later followed by unmotivated psychomotoric disbalance conditions, such as irrational dialogues, screaming, singing, crying, aimless wandering, weakness in the legs with slight shakiness and increasing stiffness, in particular in the feet, with swelling of the metatarsal joints. As a consequence, most patients tend to exhibit a "chicken-step" or tiptoe-like walk, and move around on tiptoes while dancing (tiptoe dancer step). Patients tend to take very short steps, by either trampling or dragging the feet along the floor. The typical effects of Manganese misbalance reveal themselves with the onset of difficulty of movement, starting from the lower limbs, in particular the feet. Patients gradually show reduction of facial expressiveness (i.e. increasing "iron mask face"); other symptoms include forced laughing and/or forced crying and extremely high saliva production, then followed by propulsion and repulsion. This is then gradually followed by speech difficulties, characterised by stumbling over syllables, stuttering and tongue-chattering, as well as the onset of inhibition of movements, starting from the upper limbs, usually commencing with difficulties when opening and closing the hands, then subsequently extending on to the trunk. A typical manifestation of this symptom is small and trembling handwriting. Neurovegetative syndromes, such as maniacal states, with sudden outbreaks of chatter or anger, sudden impulsive behaviour like running away, as well as slowed down movements, and fixation on intentions and words tend to become more and more evident. Also sudden episodes of hyperthermia, sweating, thirst and hunger, glycosuria and polyuria, then followed by lack of sleep or sleeplessness, fat retention, wax face with acne and depression, such as symptoms of diencephalon disturbances, characterise the second stage of manganismus.
    Then follows the likewise gradual onset of the third stage with marked extrapyramidal, pyramidal and finally even bulbär syndromes. Even liver problems, which are clinically much harder to identify, tend to become more evident (e.g. Subikterus). The increasing onset of intellectual disorders are most evident in this final stage, with fixed posture, total inability to move and insanity; all these symptoms have a sudden and destructive effect on the patient.
    On the other hand, resistant nose, pharynx, larynx and bronchial catarrh, and even chronic localised lung infiltration (manganese pneumonia) have been observed after massive inhalation of Manganese (through experiments on rats), even with the influence of Thomas flour dust. Furthermore, alterations of blood analysis values, such as polycythemia and polyglobulie, as well as hypochromic anemia have been identified. Pallidostriaer, cerebral syndrome is evident in the foreground. Also worth mentioning in this frame are dermatitis, in form of atrophy, as well as hyperkeratosis of symmetrical occurrence, especially in the knees and elbows, hair loss, atrophic eyelid infections, and so on.
    In terms of statistical occurrence (McNally), the syndrome presents itself as follows: 1) 88% weakness of the lower limbs, 55% gait disorders, 2) 83% iron mask face, 3) 70% propulsion and repulsion, 4) 60% speech disorders and tremor, 5) 53% disorders of the upper limbs and 6) 43% spastic gait.
    Cases of intestinal resorption poisoning from Manganese have often been observed. Reports have also been made on typical resorption disorders with evident localised symptoms including liver involvement, as well as far-reaching influence on the breathing apparatus and lungs, and on the central nervous system, though not of such marked nature, such as swelling and blackening of the tongue

Manganese belongs to the family of so-called trace elements, often spoken about and present in many multivitamin and mineral preparations, about which we often do not know what they useful for or what their specific role is, although manganese is one of the elements, like chrome, zinc, calcium, and magnesium, which are most often lacking in our daily diet. The typical manganese level in the human body is estimated to be about 10-40 mg.

Function

Glucose and fat metabolism, cholesterol build-up and sexual hormone synthesis depend on manganese enzymes.

Antioxidant effects: the manganese superoxid-dismutase enzyme is an important antioxidant and helps build up the body's defence against free radicals.
Histamine reduction: manganese-dependant enzymes are essential for histamine reduction.

Collagen build-up: Manganese enzymes support the build-up of collagen (connective tissue proteins).

Neurotransmitter functions: manganese modulates the activity of neurotransmitters.

Blood coagulation: manganese, together with vitamin K, supports the production of prothrombin, an important protein in blood coagulation processes.


SCOPE OF APPLICATION

Asthma: Results of analysis on the hair samples of asthma patients have shown four times lower manganese levels compared to healthy subjects. Lack of manganese could be a cofactor in the development of asthma.

Diabetes mellitus: the level of manganese in diabetics is 50% lower than in healthy subjects. A lack of manganese can lead to altered glucose toleration. It is imaginable that a lack of manganese provides less glucose carriers in the blood stream.

Epilepsy: epileptics whose illness is not of traumatic nature often have lower manganese levels in the blood and hair samples.

Osteoporosis/Arthritis: Lack of manganese gives rise to degenerative alteration of bone mass. The most commonly prescribed calcium supplementation treatment could bring about most beneficial changes in combination with manganese, so best results could generally be obtained by supplementing calcium and manganese together. However, these two elements should be administered separately at different times during the day.

Pre-menstrual syndrome, menstrual disorders: Manganese (1-6 mg per day) together with Calcium (600-1300 mg per day) can reduce pre-menstrual pain and unsteady mood.

Back and spinal pains: manganese supports the build-up of cartilage and spinal tissue. Tests on spinal and hair sample analysis of patients with back and spinal pain often reveal lower concentrations of manganese.

Schizophrenia: Low zinc levels and manganese concentrations are often revealed in hair samples of patients with schizophrenia. Manganese and zinc supplements could produce a beneficial effect. Care must be taken due to increased  blood pressure side-effects as a result of administering manganese during this treatment.

Tardive Dyskinesia: (motor system disorders): Neurological medicines tend to bind together with manganese, causing disorders of motor movements. Prescription of these drugs should include sufficient manganese supplementation to prevent this kind of side-effect.

Growth disorders: A lack of manganese can cause growth and bone structure disorders in children. Low levels of manganese in the diet during the early stages of development may lead to underdevelopment of the inner ear, which is important for their sense of balance. Small children who have difficulties in learning to walk need to take manganese supplements.

World demand for manganese depends directly on the needs of the steel industry. There are numerous grades of steel and each requires a different amount of manganese. Unit consumption is determined by calculating the average requirement of manganese per ton of steel. Some manganese which is to be converted into steel is present in the iron (hot metal) coming either from the iron ore charge or from the addition of manganese ore to the blast furnace. This manganese is only a small part of the total requirement and it is partly oxidized during the different processes that convert the hot metal into steel. Hence most of the manganese addition is made in the steel melting shop. The majority of it is in the form of manganese ferro-alloys, but there are some cases when it can be added in the form of ore.

Part of the manganese is lost in the steelmaking process through oxidation. In the 1960's and 70's, when the oxygen-blown process progressively replaced the open hearth, Bessemer and Thomas processes, the subsequent improved manganese yield caused a decline in unit consumption. In the 1980's further improvements in steelmaking (brought about by the development of combined blowing processes) meant even better manganese yields. Today, the average unit consumption for industrialized countries is a little over 5.5 kg of manganese per ton of steel, compared to some 6.5 kg in 1980 and over 7 kg in the 1960's. Changes in steel grade chemistry have had an effect on manganese requirements. For a constant unit consumption, manganese demand follows the growth in steel production. Manganese requirements for other metallurgical applications or for non-metallurgical uses do not represent a quantity large enough to significantly affect the evolution of the overall manganese demand as a direct function of steel production growth.

Grazing cattle do not seem to suffer from manganese shortage, probably because their manganese requirements are met by the herbage they consume. Manganese deficiency is a more serious problem in domestic animals such as poultry, non-grazing cattle and pigs. The main reason for this is that protein supplements of animal origin (dried milk, fish meal, mean meal) are usually low in manganese.

To promote strong legs in poultry, and to keep up normal egg production, it is necessary to supplement their feed with about 40 mg of manganese per kilo of weight. For ruminants, the requirement for optimal skeletal development is only 20-25 mg/kilo. Soybean meal, important in poultry raising, contains 30 to 40 ppm manganese.

All plants require manganese for growth and reproduction. Manganese is the element chosen by nature to catalyse oxygen evolution in photosynthesis. When there is a lack of manganese, the structure of the chloroplasts is markedly impaired. Manganese also plays a role in lignin synthesis and in thephenolic acid metabolism, helping to suppress both leaf and root diseases. Some plants are particularly susceptible to manganese deficiency.

Manganese content in the soil can vary widely. It is only 50 ppm in some localities, but can reach 10,000 ppm in unleached alkali soils. Only the divalent cation (Mn+2), which is soluble and mobile in the soil, is easily available for absorption by plant roots. The tetravalent cation (Mn+4) is virtually insoluble. Both leaf-manganese and soil-manganese analyses are used to determine manganese deficiencies or toxicity.

Manganese deficiency in most crops is indicated by an overall chlorosis of the leaf, which leaves only the main veins and midrib outlined in dark green healthy tissue. The degree to which plants can absorb manganese is more important than its simple chemical presence in the soil.

Manganese sulphate is considered the most efficient source of manganese for fertiliser production, although manganese monoxide is also used. These are added in regions deficient in manganese. Manganese sulphate and other compounds can also be used in solution to spray on foliage.

It has been demonstrated that a fungal infection of wheat can develop as a result of manganese deficiency. To correct it efficiently, manganese must be brought to the roots of the plant. The hypothesis is that manganese has a direct effect on the pathogen through toxicity, and strengthens the host plant by modifying its resistance and susceptibility.

It should also be noted that an excess of absorbable manganese which sometimes occurs in acid soil, can be toxic to some species. The problem is generally solved by adding lime.