Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Mangifera indica

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Mangiferin from the leaves has been reported to possess antiinflammatory, diuretic, chloretic and cardiotonic activities and displays a high antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria. It has been recommended as a drug in preventing dental plaques. Mangiferin shows antiviral effect against type I herpes simplex virus which could be useful in anti-herpes ointments (Unani Herbalist).

The bark of the mango tree contains 16 - 20% tannin and also mangiferine. It acts ad stringent and is believed to possess a tonic action on the mucous membrane. It is anathematic, useful in hemoptysis, hemorrhage, nasal catarrh, diarrhea, ulcers, diphtheria, rheumatism and for lumbrici. It is also used in diphtheria and rheumatism (Unani Herbalist).

Properties/Actions:     Antiviral, Antiparasitic, Antiseptic, Antitussive, Antiasthmatic, Ascaricide, Expectorant, Cardiotonic, Contraceptive, Hypotensive, Laxative, Parasiticide, Stomachic, Vermifuge

Toxicity
The sap which exudes from the stalk close to the base of the fruit is somewhat milky at first, also yellowish-resinous. It becomes pale-yellow and translucent when dried. It contains mangiferen, resinous acid, mangiferic acid, and the resinol, mangiferol. It, like the sap of the trunk and branches and the skin of the unripe fruit, is a potent skin irritant, and capable of blistering the skin of the normal individual. As with poison ivy, there is typically a delayed reaction. Hypersensitive persons may react with considerable swelling of the eyelids, the face, and other parts of the body. They may not be able to handle, peel, or eat mangos or any food containing mango flesh or juice. A good precaution is to use one knife to peel the mango, and a clean knife to slice the flesh to avoid contaminating the flesh with any of the resin in the peel.

The leaves contain the glucoside, mangiferine. In India, cows were formerly fed mango leaves to obtain from their urine euxanthic acid which is rich yellow and has been used as a dye. Since continuous intake of the leaves may be fatal, the practice has been outlawed.

When mango trees are in bloom, it is not uncommon for people to suffer itching around the eyes, facial swelling and respiratory difficulty. The irritant is probably the vaporized essential oil of the flowers which contains the sesquiterpene alcohol, mangiferol, and the ketone, mangiferone.
Mango wood should never be used in fireplaces or for cooking fuel, as its smoke is highly irritant.


One Mango supplies more than the daily need of this precursor of Vitamin A

Mango is an excellent natural source for pro-vitamin A; the content rises even after being picked before ripening (Aina). Improving the consumption of mangoes would cover the needs of the population in third world countries (Favaro). The content of carotenes is very high also in the dried fruit, and retains high levels over at least six months after harvest (Pott).
Anemia from lack of iron
The vitamin C in the mango enhances the absorption of iron from vegetable food like e.g. rice, and so prevents anemia in vegetarians (Ballot)
Beauty Aids
Taking Mango regularly makes the complexion fair and the skin soft and shining

Bleeding
Because of it's content in Vitamin C and Calcium the Mango tightens the capillary vessels and prevents oder cures bleedings of inner parts.

Burns
Burnt ashes of Mango leaves applied on the burnt parts give quick relief
Children's eating soil
Feeding the powder of dried kernel of Mango seeds with fresh water cures the habit of eating soil in kinds

Diarrhea
Sun dried Mango leaves powdered, 2-3 x a day half a teaspoon with water

Dry cough

Roast a ripe Mango on hot sand in a pan.  Draw out the  the juice of this Mango eliminates all the bronchial congestion and gives relief in cough. According to Hakeem Hashmi  sucking  the juice and not eating cut mangos is better for health and some note of caution about Mango eating

Fever
Paste of Mango roots applied on palms & soles cures fever

Gall & Kidney Stones

Dried and powdered Mango leaves, 10g a day in water (kept overnight in a tumbler) helps throwing stones out

Gastritis

In India a decoction of the mango peel is given to people with inflammation of the stomach mucus membranes.

Mental Weakness over come with mango juice
Pregnancy

A pregnant woman should eat at least one mango a day - the calcium and magnesium of the mango relaxes the muscles, relieves stress and prevents abortion.

Teeth Problems

Dried Mango seeds is a good toothpaste, strengthens the gums and helps in curing dental problems foul smell pyorrhoea
Mangoes are full packed with vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants and contain like all fruits very few proteins, fats and calories. They are perfect to replenish salts, vitamins andenergy after physical exercise.

The famous Unani physician Hakeen Hashmi teaches that mangoes strengthens and invigorates the nerve tissues in muscles, heart and brain and other parts of the body.

The enzymes of the Mango, such as magneferin, katechol oxidase and lactase, clean the bowel of the "filth" within and are an ideal antidote for all toxic effects inside the body. They provide also sufficient resistance to fight any germs and afflictions.

Hartwell claims in his book "Plants Against Cancer," that the phenols in mangoes, such as quercetin, isoquercitrin, astragalin, fisetin, gallic acid and methylgallat, as well as the abundant enzymes, have healing and cancer-preventing capacities. In gall bladder cancer a protective effect of mango consume has been proven (Pandey).

Mangos contain also a lot of tryptophan, the precursor of the "happiness-hormone" serotonin.


Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2005;21(1):19-29.
Preventing hepatocyte oxidative stress cytotoxicity with Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).
Remirez D, Tafazoli S, Delgado R, Harandi AA, O'Brien PJ.
Centro Nacional para el Control Estatal de la Calidad de los Medicamentos, Playa, Habana, Cuba.

Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases. In the present study we evaluated the effects of Vimang at preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation in intact isolated rat hepatocytes. Vimang at 20, 50 and 100 microg/ml inhibited hepatocyte ROS formation induced by glucose-glucose oxidase. Hepatocyte cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide was also inhibited by Vimang in a dose and time dependent manner at the same concentration. Vimang also inhibited superoxide radical formation by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine. The superoxide radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of the Vimang extract was likely related to its gallates, catechins and mangiferin content. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cytoprotective antioxidant effects of Vimang in cellular oxidative stress models.


Phytother Res. 2005 Mar;19(3):211-5. Related Articles, Links  
An aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (Vimang) inhibits T cell proliferation and TNF-induced activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB.
Garrido G, Blanco-Molina M, Sancho R, Macho A, Delgado R, Munoz E.
Laboratorio de Farmacologia, Centro de Quimica Farmaceutica, Apartado Postal 16042, Atabey, Playa, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. gabino.garrido@infomed.sld.cu

A commercial aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) has been reported to have antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. The molecular basis for these diverse properties is still unknown. This study shows that a stem bark extract of M. indica inhibits early and late events in T cell activation, including CD25 cell surface expression, progression to the S-phase of the cell cycle and proliferation in response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Moreover, the extract prevented TNFalpha-induced IkappaBalpha degradation and the binding of NF-kappaB to the DNA. This study may help to explain at the molecular level some of the biological activities attributed to the aqueous stem bark extract of M. indica (Vimang).


Environ Mol Mutagen. 2005 Jul;46(1):12-21. Related Articles, Links  
Effect of mangiferin on radiation-induced micronucleus formation in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes.
Jagetia GC, Venkatesha VA.
Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.

Irradiation causes a variety of lesions in important biomolecules of the cell through generation of free radicals leading to genomic instability. DNA strand breaks, acentric fragments, or defective kinetochores are manifested as micronuclei after the first cell division. Chemicals that can trap free radicals may reduce the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation. Mangiferin (MGN), a glucosylxanthone derived from Mangifera indica (mango), was investigated for its ability to reduce the frequency of radiation-induced micronucleated binucleate cells (MNBNCs) in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). HPBL cultures were pretreated with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mug/ml of MGN for 30 min before exposure to 3 Gy of (60)Co gamma-radiation. The maximum decline in radiation-induced micronuclei was observed at a concentration of 50 mug/ml MGN; thereafter, a nonsignificant elevation in MNBNC frequency was observed at 100 mug/ml MGN. Since the lowest MNBNC frequency was observed for 50 mug/ml MGN, dose-response studies were undertaken using this concentration. Irradiation of HPBLs with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 Gy of gamma-radiation caused a dose-dependent elevation in the MNBNC frequency, while treatment of HPBLs with 50 mug/ml MGN 30 min before radiation resulted in significant declines in these frequencies. MGN alone did not alter the proliferation index. Irradiation caused a dose-dependent decline in the proliferation index, while treatment of HPBLs with 50 mu/ml MGN significantly elevated the proliferation index in irradiated cells. MGN treatment reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation in HPBLs in a concentration-dependent fashion. In cell-free studies, MGN inhibited the induction of (.)OH (hydroxyl), O(2) (.-) (superoxide), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), and ABTS(.+) (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radicals in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this study indicate that MGN possesses radioprotective properties by suppressing the effects of free radicals. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 45:000-000, 2005. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Sep 24;499(3):297-305. Related Articles, Links  
Vascular effects of the Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).
Beltran AE, Alvarez Y, Xavier FE, Hernanz R, Rodriguez J, Nunez AJ, Alonso MJ, Salaices M.
Depto. de Farmacologia y Terapeutica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Arzobispo Morcillo 4, Madrid 28029, Spain.

The effects of the Mangiferia indica L. (Vimang) extract, and mangiferin (a C-glucosylxanthone of Vimang) on the inducible isoforms of cyclooxygenase (cyclooxygenase-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and on vasoconstrictor responses were investigated in vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenteric resistance arteries, respectively, from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Vimang (0.5-0.1 mg/ml) and mangiferin (0.025 mg/ml) inhibited the interleukin-1beta (1 ng/ml)-induced iNOS expression more in SHR than in WKY, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression more in WKY than in SHR. Vimang (0.25-1 mg/ml) reduced noradrenaline (0.1-30 microM)- and U46619 (1 nM-30 microM)- but not KCl (15-70 mM)-induced contractions. Mangiferin (0.05 mg/ml) did not affect noradrenaline-induced contraction. In conclusion, the antiinflammatory action of Vimang would be related with the inhibition of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, but not with its effect on vasoconstrictor responses. Alterations in the regulation of both enzymes in hypertension would explain the differences observed in the Vimang effect.