Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Naja tripudians

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Naja tripudians

Etymology

Family

Traditional name

Cobra
Syn.: Naja naja
German: Brillenschlange

English: Asian cobra
German: Brillenschlange

Cobra, Cobra di capello
Indian Cobra, Spectacled cobra
Black Pakistan cobra, Sri Lankan cobra;

Used parts

The venom, procured by compressing the gland while the serpent is either pinioned in a frame or under the influence of chloroform

Classification

Animalia; Chordata / Vertebrata - Vertebrates; Reptilia - Reptiles; Serpentes - Snakes; Elapidae

Keywords

reptile
snake
neurotoxic

Original proving

Proved by Stokes & Russell, Br. Journ. of Hom. 11,25,1853; Allen: Encyclop Mat. Med., Vol. VI, 445; Clarke: A Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica, Vol II 523; Hering: Guiding Symptoms, Vol. VII, 528.

Description of the substance

There are 30-some species of Cobra distributed in Asia and Africa; this is the common Asian or Indian Cobra, the snake-charmers' snake, distinguished by the "spectacles" on the ventral surface of the hood.
Proving by Russell & Stokes, Br. Journ. of Hom., 11, p. 25, 1853; several provers of the 1st-6th triturations, along with 22 records of accidental envenomation. In TF Allens's Encyclopedia and Hughes' Cyclopaedia.

Family Elapidae contains the "cobra" type snakes, common in Asia and Africa. They have small to moderate sized fangs at the front of the mouth, with usually only a small degree of rotation (elevation) of the fangs possible. Cobra venoms are often quite toxic and they are a major cause of human envenoming morbidity and mortality.

Geographic Range

Palearctic, Oriental: Pakistan, India (throughout most of the country),
Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, possibly E. Afghanistan.  

Physical Characteristics

The Indian Cobra's most known characteristic features are the wide black band on the underside of the neck, and the hood marking design which shows half-rings on either side of the hood. It is a smooth-scaled snake with black eyes, a wide neck and head, and a medium-sized body. Its colouring varies from black, to dark brown, to a creamy white. The body is usually covered with a spectacled white or yellow pattern, which sometimes forms ragged bands. The Indian cobra may grow from 1.8m to 2.2m. (India4U,2000; Discovery, 2000; Breen, 1974).

Food Habits

The Indian cobra feeds on rodents, lizards and frogs. It bites quickly, and then waits while its venom damages the nervous system of the prey, paralyzing and often killing it. Like all snakes, N. naja swallows its prey whole. This species sometimes enters buildings in search of rodent prey. (Breen, 1974; Burton, 1991)

Behavior

When threatened, the Indian Cobra will assume its characteristic posture. It will raise the front one-third of its body and elongate its long, flexible neck ribs and loose skin to form its distinctive hood, on which are resembled eyes. (Burton, 1991; Tropical Rainforest Animals, 2000; Discovery, 2000; Breen, 1974)

Habitat

Naja naja occurs in wild forest and in cultivated areas. (Tropical Rainforest Animals, 2000)
Biomes: tropical rainforest, tropical deciduous forest, tropical scrub forest, tropical savanna & grasslands

Economic Importance for Humans

Positive

The Indian Cobra eats rats and mice that carry disease and eat human food. Also, cobra venom is a potential source of medicines, including anti-cancer drugs and pain-killers. (Discovery, 2000; Burton, 1991)

Negative

This species is highly venomous, and its bite can be lethal. Because it hunts rodents that live around people, it is often encountered by accident, and many people die each year from N. naja bites. (Burton, 1991)

Conservation

Although the Indian Cobra is not an endangered species, it has recently been hunted for its distinctive hood markings in the production of handbags. It is listed under the CITES treaty because it closely resembles other species that are threatened and in need of protection. (Burton, 1991; Tropical Rainforest Animals, 2000)


^ Geographic Range
Palearctic, Oriental: Pakistan, India (throughout most of the country),
Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, possibly E. Afghanistan. (EMBL Reptile Database 2001)
^ Physical Characteristics
Distinctive Features: Medium-sized to large; smooth, shiny scales; wide head and neck; wide black band on underside of neck; distinctive hood marking on top of neck.  Description: The Spectacled Cobra is a smooth-scaled snake with black eyes, wide neck and head and medium body. Colouring varies form black or dark brown to yellowish white. The underside is usually white or yellowish with a wide dark neck band. The body is generally covered with a speckled white or yellow pattern, sometimes forming ragged bands. The famous hood marking of the classic design, shows a connected pair of rings. Occasionally, it may not even resemble spectacles, or may be altogether absent. The cobras of northwest India are blackish and have a barely distinguishable hood marking. Cobras are often confused with the Indian rat snakes, which have a much thinner neck and head, and become 3 metres long, a metre more than do the biggest Indian cobras.  The Spectacled Cobra is the most widely distributed of the generally accepted 3 sub -species of cobras in Indian and is one of the big four dangerous snakes, 6 species of cobras occur in Asia and 9 in Africa. The jet black cobras occur in Asia and 9 in Africa. The jet black cobra of northwest India and Pakistan is another sub-species or geographic race. Except for its colour and absence of hood marking, it is very similar to the spectacled Cobra.  Distribution: Throughout India, sea level upto 4000 m (in the Himalayas)     
 
^ Food Habits
The Indian cobra feeds on rodents, lizards and frogs. It bites quickly, and then waits while its venom damages the nervous system of the prey, paralyzing and often killing it. Like all snakes, N. naja swallows its prey whole. This species sometimes enters buildings in search of rodent prey. (Breen, 1974; Burton, 1991)
^ Reproduction
The Indian Cobra reproduces sexually by the joining of male and female gametes and produces eggs. Most snakes do not pay much attention to their eggs, but this is not the case with the Indian Cobra. The eggs, usually 12 to 20, are laid in a hollow tree, or in the earth, and the female will guard them throughout the incubation period, only leaving to feed. The young snakes will then hatch after approximately 50 days. Immediately freeing itself from the egg, a hatchling is capable of rearing up, spreading its hood and striking. (Breen, 1974; Burton, 1991; Tropical Rainforest Animals, 2000)
^ Behavior
When threatened, the Indian Cobra will assume its characteristic posture. It will raise the front one-third of its body and elongate its long, flexible neck ribs and loose skin to form its distinctive hood, on which are resembled eyes. (Burton, 1991; Tropical Rainforest Animals, 2000; Discovery, 2000; Breen, 1974)
^ Habitat
Naja naja occurs in wild forest and in cultivated areas. (Tropical Rainforest Animals, 2000)
Biomes: tropical rainforest, tropical deciduous forest, tropical scrub forest, tropical savanna & grasslands
^ Economic Importance for Humans
^ Positive
The Indian Cobra eats rats and mice that carry disease and eat human food. Also, cobra venom is a potential source of medicines, including anti-cancer drugs and pain-killers. (Discovery, 2000; Burton, 1991)
^ Negative
This species is highly venomous, and its bite can be lethal. Because it hunts rodents that live around people, it is often encountered by accident, and many people die each year from N. naja bites. (Burton, 1991)