Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Niccolum carbonicum

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history:
although niccolum was not known as such for a long time, its history goes back to 22oo years ago, when in China an alloy - similar to silver - was used containing niccolum, copper and zincum.
the ancient Greek made coins out of copper containing nicculum, and in medieval times niccolum-minerals were used to color glass green.
the miners in sachsen (Germany) did not like niccolum: Ni As (red niccolum with arsen) resembled copper, but there was no copper to be gotten from it, so that they thought it was due to the devil.
"copperniggel" or "niggel" - meaning "devil" - became the origin of the name.
1751 the Swedish mineralogist Alexander Frederik Cronstedt found out that there was a yet unknown mineral in NiAs. Shortly after the chemist Torbern Bergman succeeded in preparing the element in its pure form. (source: gerhard ruster)

pure niccolum is used in chemical industry because of its resistence against chlorum; alcalic substances and aggressive organic substances are stored in containers and pipes of niccolum.
it is component in about 3ooo alloys.

rustproof  steel consists of chromium and niccolum.It is used in bioreactors.., sets


from www.nidi.org (nickel development institute):
extracts from the nickel magazine
 - Automobiles presently contribute significant amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Fuel cell powered automobiles would reduce these emissions considerably. But until they are perfected, other options are being explored. Gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles are now on the roads. They use nickel metal hydride batteries to power an electric motor under high-torque driving conditions.

 - Increasing the efficiency of aircraft engines will require that they operate at even higher temperatures than they do today. And since the most widely used superalloy in the aerospace industry, nickel alloy N07718, is presently used to its temperature and time dependent fracture limits, new alloys will have to be developed
 - Car ferries can be built to be more fuel efficient and faster by using lighter-weight materials to construct the internal decks upon which cars and trucks are parked. Nickel stainless steel decks, 100 millimetres thick, for example, weigh 45 kilograms per square metre compared with 85 kilograms for conventional carbon steel decks that are 350 millimetres thick. In addition, the stainless steel decks need no paint or anti-corrosion coating.
 - Train accidents typically involve high-impact collisions. And one way to improve the safety of passengers in such events is to build the trains of materials that are tough and capable of absorbing enormous amounts of kinetic energy without fracturing. One such material is nickel stainless steel S30100
 - Several battery designs are vying for the potentially lucrative pollution-free electrical vehicle market. The key to success will be the amount of energy a battery can store per unit weight of battery, something known as specific energy. One design that has a specific energy 50% higher than its closest competitor is a nickel-sodium chloride battery developed by the Swiss company.
 - Scooters, powered by two-stroke gasoline engines, are major polluters in many urban centres around the world. To reduce their emissions will require engineers to design an electric scooter that can compete in terms of power and cost. The key to achieving this goal is to develop a battery that packs lots of power and is easily recharged. Nickel-zinc batteries and nickel metal hydride batteries both show considerable promise and are competing head-to-head.

 - Purifying Water
Groundwater in and around waste dumps and abandoned industrial sites is unfit for human consumption. They can contain contaminants such as gasoline, solvents, polyclorinated biphenyls, dyes and dry-cleaning fluids. One way to destroy these contaminants, and to clean up the water, is to expose the water to ultraviolet light in elaborate tubular reactors. Because of the presence of chlorides and varying pH in these waters, the reactors are made of corrosion-resistant materials such as stainless steel S31254 which contains 18% nickel.
 - Various nickel-containing materials are leading candidates for constructing supercritical water oxidation vessels

Nickel coins have been quite worthless cheap coins.