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English Nickel; German: Fünfcentstück, French: Nickel.
Common Name, Nickel.
Atomic Weight, 58. 8.
Drug strength 1/10
Niccolum Metallicum 100 g
Saccharum Lactis 900 g
Nickel: elements of the10. group of periodic system ( Nickel, Palladium, Platin )
Nenning, Hartlaub and Trinks; Annelon, 3, p. 353, Allen: Encyclop. of Pure Mat. Med., Vol. VI, p. 633; Hering: Guiding Symptoms Vol. VIII, p. 35.
Description of the substance
Nickel is silvery white metal that takes on a high polish. It belongs to the iron group, and is hard, malleable, and ductile. It occurs combined with sulphur in millerite, with arsenic in the mineral niccolite, and with arsenic and sulphur in nickel glance.
On account of its permanence in air and inertness to oxidation, it is used in the smaller coins, for plating iron, brass, etc., for chemical apparatus, and in certain alloys, as german silver. It is magnetic, and is very frequently accompanied by cobalt, both being found in meteoric iron. It is chiefly valuable for the alloys it forms.
Nickel is one of the five ferromagnetic elements.
The most common oxidation state of nickel is +2, though 0, +1 and +3 Ni complexes are observed
The bulk of the nickel mined comes from two types of ore deposits. The first are laterites where the principal ore minerals are nickeliferous limonite [(Fe,Ni)O(OH)] and garnierite (a hydrous nickel silicate). The second are magmatic sulphide deposits where the principal ore mineral is pentlandite [(Ni,Fe)9S8].
In terms of supply, the Sudbury region of Ontario, Canada, produces about 30 percent of the world's supply of nickel. Other deposits are found in Russia, New Caledonia, Australia, Cuba, and Indonesia. However, most of the nickel on Earth is believed to be concentrated in the planet's core.
Annabergite has a wonderful, bright green color. This characteristic color is easily noticeable and was used to spot veins of nickel-bearing ore. Annabergite, or "Nickel Bloom" as it is called by miners, is a weathering product of nickel-containing minerals such as niccolite, NiAs. Where weathered cobalt and nickel ores are found, both erythrite, Co3(AsO4)2-8(H2O) and annabergite are important markers. Erythrite, called "Cobalt Bloom", is bright red-purple and is isostructural with annabergite. Isostructural means that the two minerals have the same structure but different chemistries. The two minerals are actually in a series where the nickel and cobalt ions can substitute freely for each other. When the two ions are in near-equal concentrations, the resulting color is gray or off-white. A third mineral is also isostructural with annabergite and is called kottigite or koettigite, Zn3(AsO4)2-8(H2O). However, the series is incomplete, meaning that the zinc and nickel ions only substitute for each other on a very limited basis. Most annabergite is found in a crust or powder form, but a few specimens from Greece show small, well-shaped crystals. This mineral, when found in fine green crystals, can be rather attractive.
Native Iron is quite often a misnomer as natural iron is not necessarily "native" to Earth since it rarely occurs on the Earth's surface by terrestrial processes. It is mostly found in the form of meteorites that have impacted the Earth's surface. A few rare terrestrial gabbros and sulfide deposits do contain elemental iron-nickel deposits, these are the only truly native iron-nickel. All natural iron, whether it is native or meteoritic, is actually an alloy of iron and nickel. The two elements are combined in varying percentages from less than 6% nickel to as much as 75% nickel, although iron is by far more common than nickel.
The meteorites that contain iron-nickel crystals are facinating in their possible origins and diversity. It is postulated that another planet similar to Earth (a rocky planet) broke apart early in the formation of the solar system and is responsible for the iron-nickel debris that rains down upon the Earth on a daily basis. Since it is known that the Earth has a substantial amount of elemental iron and nickel in its core, this leads credence to this theory and gives us much to think about. Many, however, believe the meteor debris to be left over primordial material that the Earth and the other planets were built from.
Meteorites are very diverse and even novice collectors can distinguish samples from different known meteorites by their unique character. Often these meteorites have inclusions of large crystals of other minerals such as olivines or pyroxenes, etc or the iron has a unique crystal pattern that is characteristic.
Due to the nature of iron, care should be used in the preserving of valuable iron-nickel samples. Rust is iron's worst enemy and it is recommended to store iron samples with a dehydrating agent (dessicant).
Kamacite, a naturally occurring alloy of iron and nickel.
Naturally occurring nickel is composed of 5 stable isotopes; 58-Ni, 60-Ni, 61-Ni, 62-Ni and 64-Ni with 58-Ni being the most abundant (68.077% natural abundance). 18 radioisotopes have been characterized with the most stable being 59-Ni with a half-life of 76,000 years, 63-Ni with a half-life of 100.1 years, and 56-Ni with a half-life of 6.077 days. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lifes that are less than 60 hours and the majority of these have half lifes that are less than 30 seconds. This element also has 1 meta state.
Nickel-56 is produced in large quantities in type II supernova and the shape of the light curve of these supernova corresponds to the decay of nickel-56 to cobalt-56 and then to iron-56.
Nickel-59 is a long-lived cosmogenic radionuclide with a half-life of 76,000 years. 59Ni has found many applications in isotope geology. 59Ni has been used to date the terrestrial age of meteorites and to determine abundances of extraterrestrial dust in ice and sediment. Nickel-60 is the daughter product of the extinct radionuclide 60Fe (half-life = 1.5 Myr). Because the extinct radionuclide 60Fe had such a long half-life, its persistence in solar_system materials at high enough concentrations may have generated observable variations in the isotopic composition of 60Ni. Therefore, the abundance of 60Ni present in extraterrestrial material may provide insight into the origin of the solar system and its early history.
The isotopes of nickel range in atomic weight from 52 amu (52-Ni) to 74 amu (74-Ni).