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APMIS. 2005 Jan;113(1):1-6.
Antimicrobial activity of five essential oils against origin strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family.
Penalver P, Huerta B, Borge C, Astorga R, Romero R, Perea A.
Animal Health Department, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain. email@example.com
An in vitro assay measuring the antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Coridothymus capitatus (Spanish origanum), Satureja montana, Thymus mastichina (Spanish Origanum majorana), Thymus zygis (Spanish variety of Thymus vulgaris) and Origanum vulgare has been carried out against poultry origin strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella essen, and pig origin strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), Salmonella choleraesuis and Salmonella typhimurium. Using the broth microdilution method, all the essential oils showed an MIC > or = 2% (v/v) for the two strains of E. coli. The essential oil that showed the highest antimicrobial activity against the four strains of Salmonella was Origanum vulgare (MIC < or = 1% v/v), followed by Thymus zygis (MIC < or =2% v/v). Thymus mastichina inhibited all the microorganisms at the highest concentration, 4% (v/v), while the rest of the essential oils showed highly variable results. By chemotyping, higher inhibitory capacity was observed in the oils with a higher percentage of phenolic components (carvacrol and thymol) in comparison with oils containing the monoterpenic alcohol linalool. The results of this work confirm the antimicrobial activity of some essential oils, as well as their potential application in the treatment and prevention of poultry and pig diseases caused by salmonella.
J Appl Microbiol. 2000 Feb;88(2):308-16.
Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils.
Dorman HJ, Deans SG.
Aromatic and Medicinal Plant Group, Scottish Agricultural College, Auchincruive, South Ayrshire, UK.
The volatile oils of black pepper [Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae)], geranium [Pelargonium graveolens L'Herit (Geraniaceae)], nutmeg [Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae), oregano [Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Link) Letsw. (Lamiaceae)] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae)] were assessed for antibacterial activity against 25 different genera of bacteria. These included animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria. The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms under test while their major components demonstrated various degrees of growth inhibition.