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Trituration or tincture of the animal
Animalia; Mollusca - Molluscs; Gastropoda - Snails; Bivalvia - Mussels; Eulamellibranchiata ; Anisomyaria ; Pectinidae
No Hahnemannian proving.
Description of the substance
Also called ESCALLOP, FAN SHELL, or COMB SHELL, any of the marine bivalve mollusks of the family Pectinidae, particularly the species of the genus Pecten. The family, which includes about 50 genera and subgenera and more than 400 species, is worldwide in distribution and ranges from the intertidal zone to considerable ocean depths.
The two valves of the shell are usually fan-shaped, except for the straight hinge line with winglike projections at either side of the hinge; the valves range in size from about 2.5 cm (1 inch) to more than 15 cm (6 inches). The shell may be smooth or sculptured with radial ribs, which may be smooth, scaly, or knobbed. Scallops range in colour from brilliant red, purple, orange, or yellow to white.
The lower valve is usually lighter in colour and less sculptured than the upper.
Scallops have a single large adductor muscle for closing the valves. At the edge of the mantle (i.e., the soft tissues in contact with most of the valve surface) are short tentacles that hang like a curtain between the valves when they are open. The tentacles detect changes in the composition of the watery medium. Also at the edge of the mantle are eyes.
Scallops are most commonly found in sand or fine gravel in relatively clear water. They feed on microscopic plants and animals.
Cilia (tiny hairlike structures) and mucus aid in the collection and movement of food particles toward the mouth.
Scallops are unusual as bivalves in their ability to swim, which they do by spasmodic clapping movements of the valves; the water, ejected in jetlike spurts, propels the animal forward.
During reproduction eggs and sperm are shed into the water, where fertilization occurs. The eggs develop into free-swimming larvae.
In the next developmental stage they settle on the bottom; some have the ability to crawl. A byssal gland develops and is used to attach the animal firmly to the bottom or to some other solid surface. Some scallops remain attached throughout life; others break
free and become spasmodic swimmers.
The most important predator of scallops is the starfish, which attacks by wrapping its arms about the valves and, by the sucking action of its tube feet, pulls the valves apart; it then inserts its stomach between the valves of the scallop and digests the soft parts.
The most significant adaptation is the earliest division of the shell into two valves within which the animal was wholly contained.
Slow components of the adductor muscle permit sustained adduction, while the interlocking hinge teeth prevent shear. In addition, the shell may be strongly ridged, forming an interlocking shell margin, and it may be concentrically ringed with spines or sharp ridges projecting outward. Posterior sense organs, including photophores and eyes, are developed around the siphons and mantle margins.
Detection leads to withdrawal deep into the sediment by burrowing species. In such animals the shell is smooth and compressed.
Scallops respond to predation by swimming; shallow-burrowing cockles can leap using the foot.
Only the deepwater subclass Anomalodesmata (families Verticordiidae, Poromyidae, and Cuspidariidae) and the scallops are predators. Prey is captured either in the sudden rush of water into the mantle cavity or by the rapid eversion of the inhalant siphon.
The sea scallop, also known as the giant, or deep-sea, scallop (Placopecten magellanicus), is the species commonly taken off New England and eastern Canada.
The bay scallop (Aequipecten irradians) is also commonly found there. In the British Isles A. opercularis is the species most commonly sought, for food and as bait for commercial fishing lines.