Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Pecten jacobeus

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Toxicol Lett. 2004 Mar 21;148(3):159-69.
Cadmium in oysters and scallops: the BC experience.
Kruzynski GM.
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Marine Environmental Quality Division, Institute of Ocean Sciences, 9860 West Saanich Road, Sidney, BC, Canada V8L 4B2.

Health effects of non-occupational lifetime exposure to cadmium (Cd) are of growing concern worldwide. This overview provides some context for the current situation in coastal British Columbia, Canada, which arose in 1999 from the discovery of problematic residues of Cd in farmed Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Efforts are underway to define Cd sources and the geographical and seasonal variation of these Cd residues. The recent application by the European Community of a 1 microg Cd/g (wet weight) import limit to bivalve molluscs and the current deliberation by CODEX to adopt the same value, pose significant threats to the shellfish export trade in the Pacific Northwest (British Columbia, Washington and Alaska), where natural oceanographic conditions and coastal geology contribute to levels of Cd that usually exceed the 1 ppm limit. Human health aspects of chronic Cd exposure comprise an active field of study (this Symposium) and the validity of existing Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake is being questioned. Bioavailability of Cd from the oyster and scallop matrix is unknown and requires study. Ramifications of this uncertainty may include damage to public perception of the safety of the cultured shellfish product, loss of export market and general undermining of an industry being encouraged by both the Province of British Columbia and Federal aquaculture initiatives. There is therefore a pressing need to redefine what the "safe" limit of lifetime Cd intake is from all sources, and determine bioavailability, specifically from bivalve molluscs. Such information would facilitate the definition of scientifically defensible Cd limits by CODEX.

Toxicon. 2005 Dec 15;46(8):852-8. Epub 2005 Nov 10.  
Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins in bivalve molluscs in Ireland.
James KJ, Gillman M, Amandi MF, Lopez-Rivera A, Puente PF, Lehane M, Mitrovic S, Furey A.
PROTEOBIO, Mass Spectrometry Centre for Proteomics and Biotoxin Research, Department of Chemistry, Cork Institute of Technology, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland.

In December 1999, domoic acid (DA) a potent neurotoxin, responsible for the syndrome Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) was detected for the first time in shellfish harvested in Ireland. Two liquid chromatography (LC) methods were applied to quantify DA in shellfish after sample clean-up using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with strong anion exchange (SAX) cartridges. Toxin detection was achieved using photodiode array ultraviolet (LC-UV) and multiple tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)). DA was identified in four species of bivalve shellfish collected along the west and south coastal regions of the Republic of Ireland. The amount of DA that was present in three species was within EU guideline limits for sale of shellfish (20 microg DA/g); mussels (Mytilus edulis), <1.0 microg DA/g; oysters (Crassostrea edulis), <5.0 microg DA/g and razor clams (Ensis siliqua), <0.3 microg DA/g. However, king scallops (Pecten maximus) posed a significant human health hazard with levels up to 240 microg DA/g total tissues. Most scallop samples (55%) contained DA at levels greater than the regulatory limit. The DA levels in the digestive glands of some samples of scallops were among the highest that have ever been recorded (2,820 microg DA/g).

FEBS Lett. 2005 May 9;579(12):2727-30. Epub 2005 Apr 9.  
Scallop DMT functions as a Ca2+ transporter.
Toyohara H, Yamamoto S, Hosoi M, Takagi M, Hayashi I, Nakao K, Kaneko S.
Laboratory of Marine Biological Function, Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Japan.

We identified a DMT (divalent metal transporter) homologous protein that functions as a Ca(2+) transporter. Scallop DMT cDNA encodes a 539-amino-acid protein with 12 putative membrane-spanning domains and has a consensus transport motif in the fourth extracellular loop. Since its mRNA is significantly expressed in the gill and intestine, it is assumed that scallop DMT transports Ca(2+) from seawater by the gill and from food by the intestine. Scallop DMT lacks the iron-responsive element commonly found in iron-regulatory proteins, suggesting that it is free of the post-transcriptional regulation from intracellular Fe(2+) concentration. Scallop DMT distinctly functions as a Ca(2+) transporter unlike other DMTs, however, it also transports Fe(2+) and Cd(2+) similar to them.