Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Pernus canaliculus

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Perna Canaliculus



Traditional name

Green-Lipped Mussel
greenshell mussel
green lip mussel

Used parts


Eukaryota > Metazoa > Eumetazoa > Bilateria > Coelomata > Protostomia > Mollusca > Bivalvia > Pteriomorphia > Mytiloida > Mytiloidea > Mytilidae > Mytilinae > Perna
Perna canaliculus


sea remedy
new remedy

Original proving

no proving yet

Description of the substance

Perna canaliculus, or green-lipped mussel, is an edible shellfish found off the shores of New Zealand.
Shell up to 260 mm long, 110 mm wide and 90 mm deep. More elongated and curved than Mytilus edulis. Shell colour of juveniles bright green, wild adults often dark purple to black; farmed adults green to yellow-brown, often with brown stripes radiating from the umbo or brown spots. Inside of shell milky white and slightly iridescent. All specimens possess distinctive green lip along inside margin of shell. Individuals either male or female throughout their life. Immature and mature male gonads creamy white; mature female gonads vivid orange to pink. Foot golden-brown and can stretch to 30 mm in a 100 mm long animal. The most closely related species is Perna perna, which is native to South America and Africa, and closely resembles P. canaliculus.
Perna canaliculus is endemic to New Zealand. It occurs throughout the country but it is more common in the warmer North. It prefers moderately exposed situations and full salinity. Mussel farming is restricted to areas that are suitable with respect to its biology (high subtidal) and the sea conditions (sheltered in-shore areas). The major growing areas are Coromandel, Marlborough Sounds, and Stewart Island. In New Zealand's moderate climate, P. canaliculus grows to 90-100 mm (normal harvest size) in 18-24 months.
Perna mussels are produced under government license and to government standards. Mature mussels are collected and chilled to below 40ºC within two to four hours. The soft tissue is separated from the shell, washed several times, frozen, and freeze-dried. It is then processed into a fine powder and added to products.

Production systems

Seed supplì
The first stage involves the procurement of spat (seed) for ongrowing on the culture ropes. Spat comes from two sources:
1.    Farmers suspend spat catching lines in areas that are known to produce high numbers of planktonic larvae ready to settle. A spat settlement monitoring programme carried out by the New Zealand Marine Farmers Association and personal experience provide a guideline, but results can be variable. Spat catching on ropes is costly and provides a small portion of the total spat required, but this spat tends to be of high quality.
2.    A natural phenomenon which occurs on the North West Coast of the North Island of New Zealand provides the major source of spat. At irregular times throughout the year considerable quantities of newly settled spat attached to seaweed are washed up on the beaches in the region of Kaitaia. The seaweed is collected by local people and then carefully and quickly transported to growers in other parts of the country.
Currently, the industry is entirely based on the use of wild spat. However, the technology for small scale hatchery seed production has been established in New Zealand and commercial-scale hatchery seed production is expected within 5 years
Upon arrival at the farm, the spat is resettled onto nursery lines. This is done by holding the seaweed against the nursery rope with a light continuous tubular cotton stocking. The seed mussels attach to the rope within hours. The stocking and seaweed biodegrade within weeks. A seeding density of 1000 to 5000 spat per metre is optimal. It is important to minimise stresses such as heat and dehydration on the spat throughout harvesting, transport and reseeding. Predation is a limiting factor. Small mussels are vulnerable to predation by various fish species (snapper, spotty, leather jacket): nursery lines are kept in areas with low fish abundance, and recreational fishers are welcomed by the growers to tie up to the farm and fish from it.
Fast and highly manoeuvrable vessels are used for nursery and longline seeding and carrying out of maintenance and inspection chores. Special vessels are used for the initial anchoring and setting up of longlines together with the task of underwater inspections and replacements as necessary.
Ongrowing techniques
The siting of mussel farms is governed by several factors. Clean unpolluted water is the most essential consideration, followed by the need to site farms in areas of relatively calm sea conditions and out of the effect of ocean swells. Care has to be taken not to site farms where they will interfere with or impede the passage of vessels of all types. Water depth is also important, with most farms being in depths of 5-30 m.
Mussel farming in New Zealand is carried out on longlines. A longline is typically 110 m long and consists of two strong parallel ropes separated by plastic floats that are about 1.2 m long. The longlines are anchored at both ends on the seafloor with concrete or screw anchors. The cultivation rope hangs in loops of 5-10 m depth from the longline. A typical cultivation rope is 3500 m long and carries 40 tonnes of mussels at harvest. As the weight of the crop increases during the growth of the mussels, more floats are tied between the longline 'backbone'. The average area is between 3 and 5 ha, although farms may vary from 1 to 20 or more hectares. The shape of the boundary is determined by the geography of the area and water depth. Much bigger farms are currently planned. Where necessary, navigational channels are provided between farms to give ready access to and from shore.
After 3-6 months growth on the nursery rope, the juveniles (10-30 mm) are stripped from the ropes and seeded at a rate of 150-200/m onto a thicker rope, using a larger diameter cotton stocking to once again secure them until they attach to the rope of their own accord. This rope is then fixed in loops to the surface longline where it will remain until harvest time. As before, the cotton stocking is biodegraded after the mussels have firmly attached to the growing rope.
The duration of the growing cycle varies from site to site and depends on the number of mussels per metre of rope, food concentration (plankton, detritus), temperature, and water movement. It takes 12-18 months from final seeding to achieving 90-120 mm mussels. Farmed mussels reach market size about twice as fast as wild mussels growing in close proximity, and they retain the green shell colour. Low-intensity monitoring of crop and installations is required during the ongrowing period.
The vessels used for New Zealand mussel farming today are a far cry from those used in the days of development in the 1960s and 1970s. The first boats were small launches or fishing vessels which were used for every phase of the job, from spat collecting through to harvesting and delivery. The use of these small boats meant that the work was very labour-intensive, physically demanding and time-consuming. The rapid increase in production over the past three decades, coupled with an obvious need for innovation, has seen the development of a new style of fleet in the mussel industry. Today's vessels are highly specialised.
Harvesting techniques
Harvesting, which was originally carried out by hand and then largely by towed barges, is now done by specially designed large harvesting vessels. These are fitted with a complex array of efficient purpose-designed labour-saving equipment. A series of in-line mini-cranes progressively raise the heavy mussel-laden longline to where the hydraulic stripper pares the mussels from the culture rope. The rope is automatically fed into a container bag for cleaning ashore and later re-use. The mussels are stripped from the ropes and then pass into a revolving drum. This drum, with its high pressure water jets and revolving action, both cleans and de-clumps the mussels. They are then deposited onto moving belts for sorting. Broken shells are discarded. The clean live mussels are packed into specially designed one tonNE transporting bags or 25 kg wholesale sacks for the local market. The vessel's on-board crane is used to stack the full sacks along the deck as they are progressively filled. These self-contained harvesting units employ a crew of three to six people depending on size. The larger vessels can harvest >100 tonnes of washed, separated, ready-for-processing mussels in a day's work. As they are self-propelled, it never takes long from the farm site to delivery at the nearest unloading point. These specialist vessels are all of shallow draught so that the state of the tide will not unnecessarily delay access to wharves or slow the delivery process. The combined use of shore facilities and the vessel's own crane ensures that the unloading process is swift.
The size of the mussels largely determines the harvest time. Different markets demand specific sizes, or product forms, or both, and accordingly size is often an important consideration when deciding when to harvest any particular crop. Mussels destined for the half-shell markets are generally harvested earlier than those required for use as whole individually quick frozen (IQF) mussel meat.
Because there is no set season when mussels might spawn, care is taken to harvest them at their peak condition. Before harvesting a line, samples are inspected to ensure that the mussels are fat and succulent and not thin from having spawned in the days preceding harvest. Contract harvesters are experienced in making these judgements and inform growers accordingly. The industry is careful to ensure that only mussels in top condition enter the processing chain and go on to the marketplace, whether it is domestic or international.
Harvesting is carefully synchronised with factory production schedules in order to maintain top quality and comply with hygiene standards. Even though the mussels can stay alive for several days out of water, the time from harvesting to processing is kept to a few hours. The transport chain from harvesting on the farm through to the factory is carefully organised so that processing capacity matches the harvesting rate on a day-to-day basis. Mussels are harvested into 1 tonne synthetic bags on board the harvesting vessels. These specially designed bags allow the mussels to breathe during transport and provide a very efficient means of handling. All mussels must be alive before entering the processing phase.
Handling and processing
New Zealand mussels are processed in state-of-the-art high-tech factories that operate under very strict hygiene and quality control regimes that are determined by both New Zealand Government regulations and international food processing standards. Regular inspections are carried out by Government inspectors, and each factory runs its quality programme.

The mussels are processed into many product forms (see Market and Trade section) but, regardless of the final form, the flow through the processing chain is very rapid. The bulk of production takes little more than thirty minutes from the beginning of the cycle until final packaging. All plants use extremely quick-freezing spiral freezers and most utilise automatic weighing and packaging equipment.
Rainfall Monitoring

Because of the high water quality in the growing areas, New Zealand mussels do not require depuration between harvest and processing. However, the risk of occasional bacterial contamination needs careful management. Rainfall affects the bacteriological shellfish quality by carrying microbes from the land (mainly animal faeces) into the growing waters. Mussels may ingest these bacteria and concentrate them in their digestive system. The shellfish quality programme prevents the harvest of mussels that may pose a health risk to consumers. Strict rules apply to the harvesting of mussels during and after rainfall. Extensive tests have been carried out in the catchments of all mussel farming areas, and the effect of rainfall on specific sites has been scientifically measured. For all farm sites, the level of rainfall at which harvesting is prohibited and the length of time after rain before harvesting can re-commence have been determined. Regular ongoing monitoring is carried out by independent authorities to specifications and standards set by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). Rain gauges strategically placed in the various catchments provide electronically transmitted information to harvesters as to when harvesting may or may not proceed.

Biotoxin Monitoring

All New Zealand shellfish-producing waters are regularly monitored for the presence of algal blooms. These naturally occurring marine phenomena have been observed worldwide. They provide food for the mussels and other filter-feeding shellfish. Some algal blooms produce biotoxins that can sometimes accumulate in the shellfish. Generally these toxins are not harmful to the shellfish and their presence is transient. However, certain biotoxins can be harmful to humans, and strict regulations are observed to protect the shellfish consumer. When toxic blooms or shellfish are detected, the harvesting of all shellfish, both farmed and wild, is suspended until continuing tests prove negative. These tests, like the rainfall monitoring regime, are carried out according to international standards and are well accepted and approved by all of New Zealand's export destinations.