Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Pimpinella anisum

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Constituents
Anise fruit yields on distillation from 2.5 to 3.5 per cent. of a fragrant, syrupy, volatile oil, of which anethol, present to about 90 per cent., is the principal aromatic constituent. It has a strong Anise odour and separates in the form of shining white crystalline scales on cooling the oil. Other constituents of the fruit are a fixed oil, choline, sugar and mucilage.

Phytochemicals:    
Acetaldehyde, Alpha-pinene, Alpha-terpineol, Alpha-zingiberene, Anisaldehyde, Anisic-acid, Anisyl-alcohol, Ar-curcumene, Ascorbic-acid, Bergapten, Beta-bisabolene, Beta-pinene, Boron, Caffeic-acid, Calcium, Camphene, Chlorogenic-acid, Choline, Copper, D-carvone, Dianethole , Estragole, Eugenol, Fiber, Furfural, Hydroquinone, Imperatorin,Iron, Isoorientin, Isovitexin, Limonene, Linalool, Magnesium, Manganese, Mannitol, Methyl-chavicol,Myristicin, P-cresol, Phellandrene, Phosphorus, Potassium, Rutin, Scoparone, Scopoletin,Seselin, Squalene, Stigmasterol, Trans-anethole, Umbelliferone, Zinc

Properties/Actions:     
Carminative, Sedative, Antidepressant, Antispasmodic, Antifungal, Diuretic, Pectoral, Tonic, Galactogogue

1)"Anise warms the abdomen, dispels gas (especially after eating beans) and is helpful for belching, vomiting, chronic diarrhea, abdominal pains, sluggish digestion and hernia. The tribal people of the Amazon find it especially good for children with stomachaches. Star Anise is used as a sedative, especially for nervousness and to induce sleep. It is thought to prevent fainting. In the Amazon, this herb is thought to function as a female tonic during the menses by eliminating sad thoughts."

2. "Anis was originally used in Ancient Egypt. It is helpful in removing excess mucous from the lungs and digestive track. It has been used for colic in children, as an antispasmodic, and an antifungal. It can help prevent fermentation and gas in the stomach and bowels, thus relieving bloating and belching after meals. Anis is a mild diuretic and can stimulate added production of milk in nursing mothers. It has been mostly used for digestion issues including indigestion, nausea and gallbladder cleansing. It can also help asthma, bronchitis, and insomnia.

3. "Anis has long been used for relieving colic in children. Anis is helpful in removing excess mucus in the alimentary canal. Also believed effective as an intestinal purifier."

4. "Carminative and pectoral. Anise enjoys considerable reputation as a medicine in coughs and pectoral affections. In hard dry coughs where expectoration is difficult, it is of much value. Oil of Anise, distilled in Europe from the fruits of Pimpinella anisum, Anise, and in China from the fruits of Illicium anisatum, Star Anise, a small tree indigenous to China, is colorless, or a very pale yellow. The oils obtained from these two fruits are identical in composition, and nearly the same in most of their characters."

7. "The volatile oil in Aniseed provides the basis for its internal use to ease griping, intestinal colic and flatulence. It also has a marked expectorant and anti-spasmodic action and may be used in bronchitis, in tracheitis where there is persistent irritable coughing, and in whooping cough."

Country    ETHNOBOTANY: WORLDWIDE USES
    
China    Anodyne, Carminative, Cholera, Kidney, Stimulant
Elsewhere    Abortifacient, Asthma, Balsamic, Carminative, Colic, Cough, Diaphoretic Diuretic, Expectorant, FumitoryFungicide, Stomachic
Europe    Cancer
Mayala    Colic, Gonorrhea, Stomachach
Mexico    Carminative, Galactogogue
Turkey    Carminative, Expectorant, Lactogogue, Pectoral, Spasm, Spice, Stimulant, Stomachic, Sudorific


Clinical Trials
      Flight controllers were less tired after a shift when volatile phytoncides of brandy mint, lavender, and anise were used Leshchinskaia 1983

Observational Studies/Case Reports
      Metabolic study of anethole in humans with doses of 1 mg, 50 mg (normal diet level) or 250 mg, found that 1/2-2/3 is excreted in urine (90% as 4-methoxyhippuric acid) and 1/8 is exhaled Caldwell 1988

      "Aniseed and its galactogenous effect " (Portugese, no abstract) Nobrega 1983

      The Caribs of Guatemala make use of Pimpinella anisum which is brought in from outside the area Giron 1991

      Sweetening spices studied on 70 adults found cinnamon, vanilla, spearmint & anise to be more comparable to sugar than nutmeg, ginger, cloves, bay, and salt Blank 1990

      In Mexican markets, the name "hierba anis" has been used with Tagetes lucida, T. filifolia, T. micrantha, Artemisia dracunculus, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum Linares 1987

      Folk reputation to increase milk secretion, promote menstruation, facilitate birth, alleviate the symptoms of the male climacteric, and increase libido attributed to polymers of anethole, such as dianethole and photoanethole Albert-Puleo 1980

Adverse Effects & Toxicity
      Three skin reaction to spices (paprika, cumin, anise, mustard) Eseverri 1999

      Evaluations of toxicological data on various specific food additives including trans-anethole by a FAO/WHO Expert Committee FAO/WHO 1999

      Esophageal cancer in France associated with alcohol & tobacco are most strongly associated with aniseed aperitif, warm spirits and beer Gignoux 1999

      Trans-anethole oxide is mutagenic for Salmonella and carcinogenic in the induction of hepatomas in B6C3F1 mice & skin papillomas in CD-1 mice Kim 1999

      Evaluation of trans-anethole (i.e. 4-methoxypropenylbenzene) flavouring by an Expert Panel indicates safety at normal intake of 54 microg/kg/d Newberne 1999

      Doses higher than therapeutically useful agaist seizures produced motor impairment Pourgholami 1999

      "Contact allergy to anethole in toothpaste associated with loss of taste " (no abstract) Franks 1998

      Allergy & IgE-binding patterns on anise, fennel, coriander and cumin extracts indicate cross-reactivity among spices from Apiaceae botanical family is associated with a 60 kD molecule Jensen-Jarolim 1997

      The link between the risk of oesophageal cancer and alcohol varies greatly according to the type of alcoholic beverage, with aniseed aperitifs, hot spirits (especially hot Calvados) and beer carrying the highest risk Launoy 1997

      Leukotriene C4 release test had good correlation with clinical history for 4 patients sensitized to wheat flour, oyster, lobster & anise whereas specific IgE determinations were less sensitive Sainte-Laudy 1997

      Case of an asthma patient with high levels of specific antianiseed IgE antibodies Fraj 1996

      Epoxide of anethole was markedly cytotoxic but not genotoxic Marshall 1996

      Carbonium ions of the genotoxic allylbenzenes, including safrole & asarone, are relatively more stable than the inactive compounds (including trans-anethole) Tsai 1994

      Aniseed, cashew nut, celery, flaxseed, hops, mustard, mushroom, shrimp, sunflower, and walnut cause reaction in some allergic patients Stricker 1986

      Cross-reactivity among Apiaceae is the cause of many reactions with carrot, parsely, anise, fennel & caraway; the carrot allergy being of clinical importance in 50% of cases, including one who had anaphylactic shock after ingestion of raw carrots Wuthrich 1985

      Only low levels of adducts were detected with anethole, dill apiol and parsley apiol (less than 1.4 pmol/mg DNA) and none with eugenol Phillips 1984

      Anise-flavored 10% ethanol fed to rats for 6 months caused varicose distortions of the dendritic profiles, with internal membranous vesicles Goldstein 1983

      "Exogenous hypermineralocorticism, responsible for severe hypokalemia. Complications of the consumption of an alcohol-free anise aperitif " (French, no abstract) Massari 1983

      "Malignant arterial hypertension induced by the ingestion of "alcohol-free aniseed drink" " (French, no abstract) Toulon 1983

      A case of hypertension and quadriparesis from a non-alcoholic pastis (an anise-based aperitif), containing glycyrrhizinic acid Trono 1983

             Latest FDA Adverse Events Reports on pimpinella OR anise

Interactions
      Iron absorption was promoted by anise > mint > caraway > cumin > tilia > liquorice, not affected by karkade and inhibited by tea, in rats el-Shobaki 1990

Pharmacodynamics
      Antioxidant potency of anise, caraway, cumin and fennel essential oils in sunflower oil were not affected by gamma-irradiation and microwave radiation Farag 1998

      Salmonella enteriditis was particularly sensitive to inhibition by a combination of oil of anise, fennel or basil with methyl-paraben. Listeria monocytogenes was less sensitive Fyfe 1997

      Headlice treatment by essential oils of aniseed, cinnamon leaf, red thyme, tea tree, peppermint & nutmeg; whereas rosemary & pine were not effective Veal 1996

      Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture is strongly inhibited by cinnamon; somewhat by anise, chloroform or rose; not by clove, dill or peppermint; and growth is enhanced by lemon Ibrahim 1991

      Insecticidal, acaricidal and plant inhibition activities of rare phenylpropanoids from Pimpinella Reichling 1991

      Relaxation of tracheal smooth muscle was found with the volatile oils of 22 plants but anise & fennel oils increased phasic contractions of ileal muscle cells Reiter 1985

      Seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole or electroshock were suppressed by essential oil of Pimpinella anisum fruit in mice. Higher than therapeutic doses produced motor impairment Pourgholami 1999

      Ehrlich ascites tumour bearing mice had increased survival time and reduced tumour weight by anethole al-Harbi 1995

      Estrogenic activity of anethole and 100% anti-implantation activity at 80 mg/kg in rats Dhar 1995