Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Pyrus americana

Requests: If you need specific information on this remedy - e.g. a proving or a case info on toxicology or whatsoever, please post a message in the Request area www.homeovision.org/forum/ so that all users may contribute.

Wellesley College's Science Center:  http://www.wellesley.edu/Activities/homepage/web/Species/pashmountain.html

Sievers, A.F. 1930. The Herb Hunters Guide. Misc. Publ. No. 77. USDA, Washington DC.
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/herbhunters/mountain-ash.html

Adapted from : A Modern Herbal by Mrs M. Grieve F.R.H.S.
http://www.herbdatanz.com/mountain_ash_picture_monograph.htm

http://www.1upinfo.com/wildlife-plants-animals/plants/tree/sorame/references.html

REFERENCES :

 1.  Adams, Harold S.; Stephenson, Steven L. 1989. Old-growth red spruce
       communities in the mid-Appalachians. Vegetatio. 85: 45-56.  [11409]

 2.  Aldous, Shaler E. 1952. Deer browse clipping study in the Lake States
       Region. Journal of Wildlife Management. 16(4): 401-409.  [6826]

 3.  Bennett, Arthur L.; Armstrong, Malcolm M. 1981. Insurance silviculture
       in the black cherry - maple type. Journal of Forestry. 79(3): 146-149,
       154.  [12518]

 4.  Braun, E. L. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America.
       Philadelphia, PA: The Blakiston Co. 596 p.  [19637]

 5.  Busing, Richard T.; Clebsch, Edward E. C.; Eagar, Christopher C.;
       Pauley, Eric F. 1988. Two decades of change in a Great Smoky Mountains
       spruce-fir forest. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 115(1): 25-31.
       [4491]

 6.  Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the
       Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p.  [12766]

 7.  Cooper, William S. 1913. The climax forest of Isle Royale, Lake
       Superior, and its development. I. Botanical Gazette. 55(1): 1-44.
       [11537]

 8.  Cooper, William S. 1913. The climax forest of Isle Royale, Lake
       Superior, and its development. II. Botanical Gazette. 55(2): 115-140.
       [11538]

 9.  Cooper, William S. 1928. Seventeen years of successional change upon
       Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Ecology. 9(1): 1-5.  [7297]

10.  Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern
       United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p.
       [12764]

11.  Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and
       Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  [905]

12.  Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections
       supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p.
       (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny
       Series; vol. 2).  [14935]

13.  Fitzgerald, Brian T.; Raynal, Dudley J. 1991. Population dynamics and
       growth of balsam fir on Whiteface Mountain, New York. Bulletin of the
       Torrey Botanical Club. 118(3): 255-264.  [16764]

14.  Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others].
       1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range
       ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
       Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p.  [998]

15.  Brown, David E. 1979. Southwestern wetlands - their classification and
       characteristics. In: Johnson, R. Roy; McCormick, J. Frank, technical
       coordinators. Strategies for protection and management of floodplain
       wetlands & other riparian ecosystems: Proc. of the symposium; 1978
       December 11-13; Callaway Gardens, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-12. Washington,
       DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 269-282.  [4366]

16.  Gottschalk, Kurt W. 1988. Gypsy moth and regenerating Appalachian
       hardwood stands. In: Smith, H. Clay; Perkey, Arlyn W.; Kidd, William E.,
       Jr., eds. Guidelines for regenerating Appalachian hardwood stands:
       Workshop proceedings; 1988 May 24-26; Morgantown, WV. SAF Publ. 88-03.
       Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Books: 241-254.  [13950]

17.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.
       Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603]

18.  Hannah, Peter R. 1991. Regeneration of northern hardwoods in the
       Northeast with the shelterwood method. Northern Journal of Applied
       Forestry. 8(3): 99-104.  [5351]

19.  Hansen, H. L.; Krefting, L. W.; Kurmis, V. 1973. The forest of Isle
       Royale in relation to fire history and wildlife. Tech. Bull. 294;
       Forestry Series 13. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota,
       Agricultural Experiment Station. 44 p.  [8120]

20.  Harris, A. S.; Stein, William I. 1974. Sorbus L.   Mountain-ash. In:
       Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.
       Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of
       Agriculture, Forest Service: 780-784.  [7757]

21.  Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian
       Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p.  [3375]

22.  Hughes, Jeffery W.; Fahey, Timothy J. 1991. Availability, quality, and
       selection of browse by white-tailed deer after clearcutting. Forest
       Science. 37(1): 261-270.  [14269]

23.  Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of
       the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume
       II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North
       Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie
       Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p.  [6954]

24.  Korstian, Clarence F. 1937. Perpetuation of spruce on cut-over and
       burned lands in the higher Southern Appalachian Mountains. Ecological
       Monographs. 7(1): 125-167.  [11233]

25.  Krefting, Laurits W. 1951. What is the future of the Islae Royle moose
       herd?. Transactions, 16th North American Wildlife Conference. 16:
       461-470.  [17043]

26.  Krefting, Laurtis W. 1974. The ecology of the Isle Royale Moose with
       special reference to the habitat. Tech. Bull. 297, Forestry Series 15.
       Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Agricultural Experiment
       Station. 75 p.  [8678]

27.  Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation
       of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York:
       American Geographical Society. 77 p.  [1384]

28.  Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological
       perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p.  [19377]

29.  Leak, W. B. 1975. Age distribution in virgin red spruce and northern
       hardwoods. Ecology. 56: 1451-1454.  [8690]

30.  Leak, William B.; Graber, Raymond E. 1974. Forest vegetation related to
       elevation in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. NE-299. Upper Darby,
       PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest
       Experiment Station. 7 p.  [8758]

31.  Leopold, Donald J.; Reschke, Carol; Smith, Daniel S. 1988. Old-growth
       forests of Adirondack Park, New York. Natural Areas Journal. 8(3):
       166-189.  [13998]

32.  Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession
       following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall
       Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council
       fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No.
       14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373.  [1496]

33.  Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American
       wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p.
       [4021]

34.  McNicol, J. G.; Gilbert, F. F. 1980. Late winter use of upland cutovers
       by moose. Journal of Wildlife Management. 44(2): 363-371.  [4348]

35.  Newton, Michael; Cole, Elizabeth C.; Lautenschlager, R. A.; [and
       others]. 1989. Browse availability after conifer release in Maine's
       spruce-fir forests. Journal of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 643-649.
       [8401]

36.  Ohmann, Lewis F.; Cushwa, Charles T.; Lake, Roger E.; [and others].
       1973. Wilderness ecology: the upland plant communities, woody browse
       production, and small mammals of two adj. 33-year-old wildfire areas in
       northeastern Minnesota. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-7. St. Paul, MN: U.S.
       Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest
       Experiment Station. 30 p.  [6862]

37.  Ohmann, Lewis F.; Grigal, David F. 1966. Some individual plant biomass
       values from northeastern Minnesota. NC-227. St. Paul, MN: U.S.
       Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest
       Experiment Station. 2 p.  [8151]

38.  Oosting, H. J.; Billings, W. D. 1951. A comparison of virgin spruce-fir
       forest in the northern and southern Appalachian system. Ecology. 32(1):
       84-103.  [11236]

39.  Preston, Richard J., Jr. 1948. North American trees. Ames, IA: The Iowa
       State College Press. 371 p.  [1913]

40.  Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of
       the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of
       North Carolina Press. 1183 p.  [7606]

41.  Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant
       geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p.  [2843]

42.  Reiners, William A,; Lang, Gerald E. 1979. Vegetational patterns and
       processes in the balsam fir zone, White Mountains, New Hampshire.
       Ecology. 60(2): 403-417.  [14869]

43.  Risenhoover, Kenneth L.; Maass, Steven A. 1987. The influence of moose
       on the composition and structure of Isle Royale forests. Canadian
       Journal of Forest Research. 17: 357-364.  [8230]

44.  Saunders, Paul R.; Smathers, Garrett A.; Ramseur, George S. 1983.
       Secondary succession of a spruce-fir burn in the Plott Balsam Mountains,
       North Carolina. Castanea. 48(1): 41-47.  [8658]

45.  Smith, David W.; Suffling, R.; Stevens, Denis; Dai, Tony S. 1975. Plant
       community age as a measure of sensitivity of ecosystems to disturbance.
       Journal of Environmental Management. 3: 271-285.  [10050]

46.  Snyder, J. D.; Janke, R. A. 1976. Impact of moose browsing on
       boreal-type forests of Isle Royale National Park. American Midland
       Naturalist. 95(1): 79-92.  [8119]

47.  Sprugel, Douglas G. 1976. Dynamic structure of wave-regenerated Abies
       balsamea forests in the north-eastern United States. Journal of Ecology.
       64: 889-911.  [14866]

48.  Stiles, Edmund W. 1980. Patterns of fruit presentation and seed
       dispersal in bird-disseminated woody plants in the Eastern deciduous
       forest. American Naturalist. 116(5): 670-688.  [6508]

49.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982.
       National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names.
       SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p.  [11573]

50.  Wendel, G. W. 1990. Prunus pensylvanica L. f.  pin cherry. In: Burns,
       Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of
       North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC:
       U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 587-593.  [13971]

51.  Wendel, G. W. 1990. Prunus pensylvanica L. f.  pin cherry. In: Burns,
       Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of
       North America. Volume 2. Hardwoods. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC:
       U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 587-593.  [13971]

52.  Wilde, S. A. 1946. Soil-fertility standards for game food plants.
       Journal of Wildlife Management. 10(2): 77-81.  [8865]

53.  Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States
       and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p.  [2620]

54.  Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States,
       their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S.
       Department of Agriculture. 362 p.  [4240]