Raphanus sativus niger
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The plant contains raphanin, which is antibacterial and antifungal. It inhibits the growth of Staphylococcuc aureus, E. coli, streptococci, pneumococci etc. The plant also shows anti-tumour activity . And a Phenyl-ethyl isothiocyanite, a pungent, volatile oil, and an amylclytic enzyme.
Composition of leaves (Dry weight): Water: 0 Calories: 287 Protein: 28.7 Fat: 5.2 Carbohydrate: 49.6 Fibre: 9.6 Ash: 16.5 Calcium: 1913 Phosphorus: 261 Iron: 35.7 Sodium: 956 Potassium: 4348 VitaminA: 21 Thiamine: 0.69999 Riboflavin: 2.43 Niacin: 34.8 VitaminC: 704 Source:  Notes: Vitamin A is mg not IU
The Japanese radishes have higher concentrations of glucosinolate, a substance that acts against the thyroid gland. It is probably best to remove the skin.
Anthelmintic; Antibacterial; Antifungal; Antiscorbutic; Antispasmodic; Astringent; Cancer; Carminative; Cholagogue; Digestive; Diuretic; Expectorant; Laxative; Poultice; Stomachic.
(see Traditional use)
The juice has been used in the treatment of cholelithiasis as an aid in preventing the formation of biliary calculi. The expressed juice of white or black Spanish radishes is given in increasing doses of from 1/2 to 2 cupfuls daily. The 2 cupfuls are continued for two or three weeks. then the dose is decreased until 1/2 cupful is taken three times a week for three or four more weeks. The treatment may be repeated by taking 1 cupful at the beginning, then 1/2 daily, and later, 1/2 every second day.
Phytother Res. 2005 Jul;19(7):587-91.
Antioxidant effect of squeezed juice from black radish (Raphanus sativus L. var niger) in alimentary hyperlipidaemia in rats.
Lugasi A, Blazovics A, Hagymasi K, Kocsis I, Kery A.
National Institute for Food Safety and Nutrition, 1097 Budapest, Gyali ut 3/a, Hungary. email@example.com
Black radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. niger) root has been used in folk medicine since antiquity as a natural drug for the stimulation of bile function. According to in vitro studies the squeezed juice from black radish root exhibited significant antioxidant properties. In the present study, the beneficial effect of the black radish juice on some free radical reactions in rats fed with a diet rich in lipids (20% sunflower oil, 2% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid in normal chow) was examined. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and conjugated diene concentrations were significantly higher, while the antioxidant enzyme activities and the free radical scavenging capacity were lower in hyperlipidaemic rats compared with normal controls. Supplementation of the lipid-rich diet with black radish juice resulted in a significant improvement of the parameters mentioned above. Although the exact mechanism of the biologically active compounds in black radish on the lipid metabolism and lipid peroxidation is not clear yet, a beneficial effect of the drug was evident in alimentary hyperlipidaemia.
Phytother Res. 2002 Nov;16(7):677-9.
Effects of black radish root (Raphanus sativus L. var niger) on the colon mucosa in rats fed a fat rich diet.
Sipos P, Hagymasi K, Lugasi A, Feher E, Blazovics A.
2nd Department of Surgery, Semmelweis University, H-1125 Budapest, Kutvolgyi u. 4, Hungary. firstname.lastname@example.org
The effect of black radish root (Raphanus sativus L. var niger) was studied on the structure and redox state of the colon mucosa in fat-rich diet fed rats. The epithelial lining disrupted, the number of enterocytes and the goblet cells reduced and inflammatory cells were observed in rats fed with a fat-rich diet. After treatment with granules from black radish root all of the histopathological changes and parameters of the redox state caused by the fat-rich diet were improved. The structure of the epithelial cells was similar to the controls, the number of goblet cells increased and no inflammation was observed.
Virologie. 1987 Apr-Jun;38(2):115-20.
[Immunomodulation with natural products. I. Effect of an aqueous extract of Raphanus sativus niger on experimental influenza infection in mice]
Prahoveanu E, Esanu V.
A Raphanus sativus niger water extract was administered by intranasal instillations to mice before inoculation of the influenza virus A/PR 8/34 (H1N1) strain by the same route. The extract ensured some protection against the experimental influenza infection. A significant decrease of the hemagglutinin titre of the mouse lung homogenate was noted, as well as a decrease of the mortality rate and a significant increase of the rate of survival as compared to the untreated controls.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2004 Sep 13;4:811-37.
Raphanus sativus (Radish): their chemistry and biology.
Gutierrez RM, Perez RL.
Laboratorio de Investigacion de Productos Naturales, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias extractivas IPN, Mexico DF. email@example.com
Leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus have been used in various parts of the world to treat cancer and as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of this radish is reviewed. The structures of the compounds isolated and identified are listed and aspects of their chemistry and pharmacology are discussed. The compounds are grouped according to structural classes.
Phytother Res. 2005 Sep;19(9):750-5.
Gastrointestinal stimulatory and uterotonic activities of dietary radish leaves extract are mediated through multiple pathways.
Ghayur MN, Gilani AH.
Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, The Aga Khan University Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan.
Raphanus sativus, commonly known as radish, is a food plant known worldwide for its culinary and medicinal properties especially as a laxative and abortifacient. This study reports the gastrointestinal and uterine tone modulatory activities of the crude extract (Rl.Cr) of radish leaves. Rl.Cr, showing the presence of saponins and alkaloids, exhibited a spasmogenic effect (0.03-10 mg/mL) in isolated rabbit jejunum, rat stomach fundus and uterus which was partially blocked by atropine. In contrast, Rl.Cr was found to be devoid of any stimulatory effect in rat ileum, instead showed an inhibitory effect (0.1 mg/mL) on the ACh dose-response curves. A mild relaxant effect was also observed in rabbit jejunum at the lower doses (0.1-0.3 mg/mL) but not against K(+)-induced contractions, ruling out a calcium channel blocking effect. In guinea-pig ileum, Rl.Cr exhibited a stimulant effect resistant to atropine while sensitive to pyrilamine pretreatment. The aqueous fraction, showing a strong presence of saponins, was found to be more efficacious than the non-polar fractions in its spasmogenic effect. This study shows the presence of species-dependent gastrointestinal effects of radish mediated partially through cholinergic receptors in rabbit and rat tissues, but through histaminergic activation in the guinea-pig, providing a scientific basis for its use in gut and uterine affections while also giving a wider picture of the activity profile of radish by using different species of animals.