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Duszniki Zdrój:The name of such settlements was derived from the Polish word dusza which means soul hence in western Slavonic countries they were called duszniki.The second part of the name recorded in the mentioned chronicles is believed to indicate who drew up the legacy and at the same time reveals the landlord's name. Professor Rospond maintains that Rynarcz originates from Latin Reinhardi villa or from German Reinhardsdorf that means Reinhard's village. Therefore, the hypothesis that Duszniki Zdrój was named after the disease called dusznica (Eng.asthma) should be treated as a sheer legend.T
Bad Reinerz - Duszniki Zdrój
Warm Spring at Reinerz, Prussia.
Minerals; Inorganic; More Inorganic Compounds
Allen: Cyclopaedia, V. 8.
Neumann: Thorer Pract. Beitr. Z. Hom., V. 4, p. 176.
Description of the substance
Duszniki Zdrój - the Past
In the times when the Polish and Czech communities were arousing, Ziemia Klodzka was inhabited by the Slavonic tribe of Croatians, which was mentioned by a past chronicler, the Bavarian Geographer, in 845 AD. Three centuries later a Czech annalist, Kosmas from Prague, recorded that in the 10th century the region was merged with the Czech duchy of Libice. According to his chronicles, Slawnik, the Duke of Libice and the father of the first Slavonic martyr, St. Wojciech, possessed landed property stretching up to Klodzko. Since 1002, when the Polish king Boleslaw Chrobry waged the campaign against the southern neighbours, both Polish and Czech influences clashed in the region. Ziemia Klodzka was long wrested from each other or, for the sake of peace, handed over either as a bride's dowry or as a lifelong fief. Later the Silesian Piast family reigned in this territory until the death of the duke Bolko Ziebicki in 1341 when it was eventually annexed to the Bohemia Kingdom.Supposedly, in Middle Ages Duszniki was quite a large settlement. Its name appeared in the records for the first time in 1329. The chronicle mentions a place called Dussnik aliast Rynarcz. According to a renowned linguist, Professor Stanislaw Rospond, the first part of the name indicates a serf's status of the village which was previously granted to the Church by a lord as a legacy for the sake of the redemption of his soul. After his death peasants of the village were obliged to render particular services to the church. In return masses were celebrated for the soul of their late lord. The name of such settlements was derived from the Polish word dusza which means soul hence in western Slavonic countries they were called duszniki.The second part of the name recorded in the mentioned chronicles is believed to indicate who drew up the legacy and at the same time reveals the landlord's name. Professor Rospond maintains that Rynarcz originates from Latin Reinhardi villa or from German Reinhardsdorf that means Reinhard's village. Therefore, the hypothesis that Duszniki Zdrój was named after the disease called dusznica (Eng.asthma) should be treated as a sheer legend.The exact date of the foundation of the town has not been established, yet it is believed that it might have happened before 1324.Duszniki was situated on an old trade route (later known as the Polish track) linking two important commercial centres Wroclaw and Prague and is very likely to have been a significant settlement living on craft and trade. According to annals dating back to the 14th century, some iron ores - limonite and hematite - had already been explored in nearby mines. The ores were smelted in a primitive local steelworks called kuznica. The documents from 1408 mention one kuznica situated on the suburbs of the nowadays resort and neighbouring a present-day Pension Blachownia located on the road to Zieleniec.In those stormy days of religious uneasiness, the town was included in the feudal estate Homole; its proprietors resided in a nearby castle that was bearing the same name. The conflict between Czech landlords and clergy on one side and the radical fraction of the Hussite movement - Taborites - on the other finally erupted and the Taborite soldiers entered Ziemia Klodzka where they found numerous followers among the local people. In December 28th, 1428, in the battle of Stary Wielislaw they defeated the forces of Silesian magnates; next year they managed to conquer most of the towns and villages of Ziemia Klodzka. Both Duszniki and the Homole Castle, which was made Hussites' base of attack, remained intact. The castle was annexed and made into headquarters by a famous knight and Taborite leader - Peter the Polish. After the Hussites invasion, the local community found it very difficult to restore peace in the region. Brigands looted and took control of the castle while peasants were so intimidated that only at night did they dare to leave their homesteads to work in the fields.The anxiety was soothed not before the reign of the Polish Jagiellonian and later the Austrian Habsburg dynasty in Bohemia. In the 16th century the local community successfully repaired wartime damage. In 1584 Duszniki that was steadily growing richer and richer built its townhall, the parish church of St. Paul and Peter and also the burial church of St. Cross. In those days Duszniki owed its wealth to the craftsmen's - mainly clothiers' - prosperity. That profitable craft developed considerably in the region. Cloth was not only produced here but also enriched. That unique and complicated technology was mastered by craftsmen called fullers who founded their own corporation in Duszniki in 1583. At the end of 16th century the town was rich enough to buy the Homole Castle and other neighbouring estates back from the Austrian Emperor at the price of 10 000 contemporary coins called thalers. Around that time a new craft, paper manufacture, appeared in the region. Since then on, Duszniki has taken great pride in it.The prosperous period in the town's history was interrupted by the Thirty Years' War. The location, which once seemed to be favourable for Duszniki, became its curse and led to a decline of the town. During the war the route through Duszniki was frequented by Emperor's army accompanied by Cossack horsemen from Poland and also by Swedish soldiers, which resulted in considerable damage. The local people faced confiscation of their properties and, what is more, they were obliged to contribute in army supplies. Many houses and farms were burnt, people were dying from contagious diseases. In 1648, when Duszniki was granted the status of King's Town, only twenty-five middle-class people dwelt here and as many as fifty-four estates were abandoned.No sooner did the citizens start rebuilding their town, a new war broke out. In 1740 the army of the Prussian king Frederick II invaded the whole Silesia and Ziemia Klodzka thus triggering three successive conflicts that historians called Silesian Wars. They lasted up to 1763 and as a result Ziemia Klodzka was handed over from Austria to Prussia. Some years later a new conflict, this time over the Bavarian succession, spread in the region causing new damages.As most of Silesian towns Duszniki started an arduous restoration. Despite terrible loss the town was doing quite well because among the citizens there were a lot of wealthy craftsmen. In 1751, as many as 106 master craftsmen and 62 apprentices belonged to the corporation of clothiers. The local deposits of iron ores were getting gradually exhausted and old steelworks were being closed. However, this did not affect the town's economy severely as profits from mining were dynamically replaced by paper manufacture incomes. Moreover, in 1769, mineral springs in Duszniki were officially recognised as healing water comparable even with the quality water from Czech Cheb. This fact determined the further development of the town as a spa. Bath facilities, pavilions and pensions were built. Every year more guests were visiting the new spa. At the beginning of 20th century Duszniki were already enjoying the fame of renowned health resort.From the end of 18th century the resort was lucky to avoid any atrocities of war. Napoleonic wars that caused destruction all over Europe did not affect Duszniki, though some bloody battles for fortresses in Klodzko and Srebrna Góra were waged nearby. In such fortunate circumstances nothing could stop the spa's development. In 1813 Duszniki was proud to receive the Prussian king Frederick III and many other noble guests. From 1822 the spa was supervised by the town authorities that financed the erection of a pump room (i.e. the place where guests could drink spring water). Mid-18th century in Duszniki is marked by numerous fires and floods. In 1844 fire completely destroyed the townhall which has not been reconstructed up to the present times. On the other hand establishing of the stage-coach postal service connecting Wroclaw with Duszniki contributed to further development of the spa substantially as the number of visitors increased. Still new facilities were necessary in town. More and more building materials like iron and cast iron were needed whereupon the local steelworks was reopened. 300 workers smelted imported iron ores in two furnaces here. In 1869 Duszniki celebrated its 100th anniversary. On that occasion it was visited by the Emperor family members; this fact reflected the high status of the town without a doubt. At the beginning of the 20th century Duszniki also gained the fame of an excellent winter resort; many ski routes, a sledge run, and a ski jump were built here. Winter sports fans visited Duszniki with pleasure, especially that in 1902 it got the railway connection with Klodzko. From that time on, more and more visitors have been coming to Duszniki. Today it is happy to receive over 10 000 tourists every year.I World War did not directly affect Duszniki. Nevertheless, during the war and immediately after it, in the times of great depression, spas were not in demand so the number of tourists decreased considerably. Between the wars the town authorities resolved upon development of the local service facilities. Simultaneously, Germans began the action of covering up the traces of Slavonic characteristics in the region. Firstly, they changed all the local names of any settlements to German ones. When the Nazis took power in Germany they aimed at removal of any traces of Slavonic past including the material ones so the national prejudice was manifested in far more straightforward way. They even forbade the border exchange between Poland and Czech Republic.Fortunately, during II World War Duszniki, situated aside the main military action, again was spared blood, casualties and damage. In May, 1945 The Red Army easily entered the town, and almost at the same time Polish authority took control over it. Duszniki resumed its activities as a health resort.In a different political and social situation, the role and operation of health resorts faced new reality. The facilities, which were then available to public not as luxurious pensions, hotels, baths etc. but converted into sanatoriums, hospitals and vacation homes. The range of services expanded, authorities made efforts to modernise the resort facilities. They also established co-operation with research centres attached to hospitals working with medical academies.Strange as it may seem, the prevailing trend towards widespread industrialisation affected Duszniki as well. The local steel factory was converted into large Motor Electrical Engineering Plants that employed a big number of local people. It is worth saying that establishing an industrial works in a health resort, next to picturesque mountains, initiated a fierce discussion. Yet, some people still maintain that it stimulated further development of the town. New housing projects were put into effect, modern commercial and service centres were built, two new schools were erected, and the new by-pass directed the transit vehicle traffic out of the town.A collective body named The Resorts of Klodzko Region was created in 1973. It consisted of three neighbouring health resorts - Duszniki, Polanica, and Kudowa. Shortly afterwards, Duszniki enlarged its area with adjacent villages of Podgórze and Zieleniec. Podgórze was once a summer resort, yet Zieleniec, being the highest village in Sudety Mountains (900-950 m above sea level), is one of the most famous winter sports centres in the country. The acute economic crisis of the eighties in Poland hit not only big cities but also towns like Duszniki. State-run, so-called the Workers' Vacation Fund went bankrupt leaving behind devastated buildings and facilities. Nevertheless, Duszniki - the resort with encouraging perspectives - hope to overcome the troubles. The hopes seem to be justified by steadily increasing number of tourists who come to visit this interesting place.
The first record about healing qualities of the Duszniki springs comes from 1406. Later documents indicate that the spring water was highly thought of not only for its therapeutic value but also for its good taste. It is even said to have been mixed and drunk with wine. In a dubious and often confusing description of Ziemia Klodzka, published in 1625, and entitled Glaciografia (Eng. Glaciography), a 17th century preacher from Klodzko, Georgius Aelarius confirms that ill people were treated there with water from Duszniki. Yet, it had not got full approval before its therapeutic qualities were officially recognised in 18th century. Five natural springs were being explored in the rapidly developing resort. They were located in two basic sites: on the edge of today's park where it faces the town and by the stream called Gardlo Smoka (Eng. Dragon's Gullet). In 19th century the water was mixed with goat milk and then served to people. This specific treatment was imported from Switzerland and successfully adapted in Duszniki. Goats which supplied the town with the precious milk were raised near Duszniki on huge grass-land, today called Kozia Hala (Eng. Goat Pasture).The prosperity of the resort stimulated the town's economy. Building of new pensions and resort facilities required cast iron goods. That encouraged two brothers Joseph and Nathan Mendelssohn to reopen the old steelworks. It is worth mentioning that the Mendelssohn brothers were the uncles of the famous composer Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, who visited them in Duszniki in 1823. The 15-year-old talented young artist gave a charity concert here. It is believed that the picturesque landscape of Strazyska Valley is reflected in his overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream. Mendelssohns' characteristic house with a clock on its steeple has survived till today. Nowadays it belongs to the complex of sanatoriums and vacation homes called Blachownia situated on the way to Zieleniec.In the first half of 19th century Duszniki became the most fashionable resort in the region of Ziemia Klodzka. The citizens of the town certainly earned the good reputation. They opened new springs to the public, kept on improving the resort facilities but first of all they cared about the visitors' comfort. Seemingly funny police regulations prove local people's loving attitude towards guests. One of the regulations, issued in 1867, aimed at securing peace and silence and instructed the coachmen to restrain themselves from lashing horses with whips. Another one, dating from 1876, forbade ladies to wear dresses with long trains flowing along pavements when walking in the park because they raised the clouds of dust. In 1862 well-equipped new baths were opened in the town.In those prosperity times many Polish guests visited Duszniki. In 1818 Chopin's teacher, Józef Elsner, stayed here and it is probably him who encouraged the great composer to treat his diseases here. In 1828 Duszniki rendered services to an eminent poet Zygmunt Krasinski, in 1837 to a traveller Karol Boloz-Antoniewicz, in 1840 to general Edward Dembowski, and in 1851 to another poet Roman Zamorski. Polish guests visiting Duszniki came first of all from the region of Poznan. They were the patients of a Polish doctor Wladyslaw Stan (Physician in Lungs and Throat Diseases). Hence the resort librarians were bringing books and magazines from Poland.One of the papers from 1884 writes:"Nowadays the resort offers not only mountain climate that might be too harsh for ill lungs [...] but also 8 springs ample with iron, mud-baths, and zetyca (i.e. whey of ewe's milk). Only three springs have drinking water, one of them is warm [...] othersare used only as baths. Zetyca from Duszniki has achieved widespread fame; even the Germans who used to ignore our Carpathian zetyca, boast that Reinerz produces almost as good whey of ewe's milk as Alpine resorts do. Needless to say, the speciality is certainly highly priced. According to the official tariff, any patient drinking half a quart (1 quart equals 1 litre) of best quality zetyca a day is charged weekly as much as 6 marks or in our present currency 3 roubles. All things considered, it is about 3 zlotys for half a quart more than you have to pay for a cup of white coffe. Whey of goat's milk is only half that expensive."A contemporary professional magazine The Medical Review reports that Reinerz (Pol.Duszniki) is frequented first of all by middle class visitors " ... who watch their health and care about nothing more than their cups and baths whereupon at 9 o'clock at night Reinerz is as quiet as a hospital. Patients seem toafter their health [...] increases every year. In 1872 Duszniki served 2 900 patients, yet presently it must be ready to satisfy more than 4 000."Those who expected "brilliant parties, dignified concerts, theatres, notable social events, enjoyable trips, and love affairs, etc." were doubtless disappointed. However, there are also other documents stating that Duszniki not only healed its patients but also provided them with entertainment. At least they always took a trip to the nearby mountains. Such trips were described by Frederick Chopin in his letters from Duszniki.In 1902 the resort got connected with Klodzko, and three years later with Kudowa by railway service. Better access to Duszniki considerably increased the number of visitors thus enhancing its status in the region. Duszniki Zdrój Treatment and Recovery Resort offers great variety of attractions. Presently patients can enjoy here the healing waters from four springs that supply 300 litres of water per hour. The most significant one was discovered in 1797 and given a name Cieply (Eng. The Warm One). Later on the spring was renamed and from that time on it has been called Pieniawa Chopina (Eng. The Foaming Spring of Chopin). Its water coming from the deepest layers of the Earth's crust is ample with iron and has the temperature of +19 C so it can be used both for drinking and for baths. Zimny (Eng.The Cold One), the oldest of all springs in Duszniki is said to have been discovered in 15th century. Its water reaches temperature +11 C and has been exploited as a cure for some diseases since 1769. Duszniki owes this spring its status of health resort.Water of the spring Jan Kazimierz, in turn, is saturated with carbonic anhydride so it can be used exclusively for baths. The fourth, nameless, spring of Duszniki Zdrj, has water that is ample with carbon dioxide. Both engineering and food industry are making use of the spring. A small, inconspicuous building, at the back of the strolling hall, is in fact the largest Polish factory producing natural carbon dioxide.