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Frangula alnus mill. / Frangulae cortex
frangula refers to the fragility of the wood .(lat.: frangere : to brake )
the German name Faulbaum meens "rotten tree" and refers to the rotten smell of the bark
( also Gichtholz , Grindholz, Hundsbeere )
ticture from bark , esp. from twigs
bark is usually kept for one year before use
Plantae; Spermatophyta, Angiospermae - Flowering Plants; Dicotyledonae; Rosiflorae / Rosidae; Rhamnales; Rhamnaceae
History and authority: Introduced in 1850, Allg. Zeit. F. Hom. II, 139; Allen: Encyclop. Mat. Med., Vol. VIII, 302; Clarke: A Dictionary of Practical Mat. Med., Vol. III, 972.
Description of the substance
the Alder Buckthorn is a 1 to 3 m ( ih rare cases up to 6 m ) high thornless bush , rarely a tree with relatively scanty leeves . the small blossoms grow into round small fruits of initially green colour , later changing into red and blackviolett colour. The branches haven´t got thorns
In Europe commonly growing in woods , around rivers , along roads and paths and in hedges.
Blossomtime is may to july . It prefers wet or at least moist ground
Description: An unarmed deciduous shrub or small tree commonly 4.5m tall. Branches sub - opposite, ascending at an acute angle to the main stem, without marked distinction into long and short shoots. Young twigs green becoming grey - brown, appressed - puberulent; bark of old branches smooth, in very old trees blaze lemon - yellow; young wood dark brown. Buds without scales, densely covered with brownish hairs. Leaves: 2.7cm long, petioled, obovate bluntly apiculate, entire, undulate with caduceus brownish tomentum particularly beneath, shiny green but turning clear yellow and red in autumn; large lateral veins about 7 pairs. Flowers: 3mm in diameter, on rather stout pedicels in axillary fascicles on the young wood. Calyx greenish, lobes 5, ovate; petals 5, small. Fruit: 6.10 mm in diameter changing from green to red and then violet - black on ripening, 2.3 seeded.
Macroscopical: Single or double quills about 1.2cm wide, texture papery with an outer surface of smooth, dark - purplish cork bearing numerous transversely - elongated whitish lenticles; the inner surface brown, finely striated longitudinally, fracture short in the cork and cortex and fibrous in the phloem. Odourless; taste sweetish or slightly bitter.
Microscopical: Cork cells containing purplish - red contents: cortex containing large cells filled with mucilage; phloem containing numerous phloem rays 1.3 cells wide, and tangential groups of fibres with prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in files of cells forming a crystal sheath around each group; rosette crystals of calcium oxalate throughout and a few very small starch grains; stone cells absent.
Distribution: Throughout Europe and United States.