Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Robinia pseudoacacia

Requests: If you need specific information on this remedy - e.g. a proving or a case info on toxicology or whatsoever, please post a message in the Request area www.homeovision.org/forum/ so that all users may contribute.


Robinia pseudoacacia Linn.

Etymology

Either jean Robin, herbalist to Henry IV of France, or his son Vespasien, grew seeds of this tree and sent them between 1601 and 1636, presumably from Louisiana. At any rate, the generic name Robinia does honor to these Robins.

The type owes its name to Jean Robin, the gardener of Heinrich IV. and Ludwig XIII., who brought this  tree to Paris at the beginning of the 17th  century. A tree planted by his son Vespasien Robin is said still to grow  in the Jardin des Plantes in our days.
The tree is called Pseudacacia because first erroneously it was considered as an acacia. Later it was falsly considered as a Johannisbrotbaum.

Family

Traditional name

English: False acaci, Locust;
Italiano: Acacia cascia, gaghia robinia
German: Scheinakazie, falsche Akazie, Silberregen
French: Acacia, faux acacia


lack locust.
French : Robinier faux acacia  German:  Falsche Acacien.
Robinia/Falsa acacia
Akasya [E], Al Sant Al Kathib [E], Black Locust [P,E,B,H,L], Common Locust [L], False Acacia [H,L], Locust Tree [H], Robinia [D], Salgim Chichekli Aghaji [E],
Other Posible Synonyms:From various places across the web, may not be correct:
R. pseudacacia[H,L] R. pseudo-acacia[E] R. pseudoacacia f. erecta[G] R. pseudoacacia f. inermis[G] R. pseudoacacia f. microphylla[G] R. pseudoacacia f. pyramidalis[G] R. pseudoacacia f. rehderi[G] R. pseudoacacia f. rozynskiana[G] R. pseudoacacia f. semperflorens[G] R. pseudoacacia var. microphylla[G] R. pseudoacacia var. pyramidalis[G] R. pseudoacacia var. rectissima[B,P] R. pseudoacacia var. rozynskiana[G] R. pseudoacacia var. semperflorens[G]

Used parts

Tincture of the bark.
Tincture of fresh bark of young twigs.
Trituration of the beans.

Classification

Kingdom    Plantae - Plants
Subkingdom    Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Superdivision    Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division    Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class    Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Subclass    Rosidae -
Order    Fabales -
Family    Fabaceae - Pea family
Genus  Robinia L. -- locust P
Species Pseudoacacia

Keywords

Original proving

Introduced by Burt in 1864. American Hom. Obs. I, 61; Allen: Encyclop. Mat. Med. Vol. VIII, 402 and Vol. X, 608.

Description of the substance

The tree with the height of 20 - 27m with a weak root comes from the forests of the east of the USA. Since the 17th century is has been spred over most parts of Eurasia and Northern Africa. The 20-30cm long leaves don't turn yellow in autumn. Some leaves change to 1-2cm long thornes. The white blooms are arranged in the form of grapes. Flowering season: May and June
The tree doesn't need much carbonate or nitrate, as it can absorbe nitrate with the help of nodules of bacterias at the roots. A special defense mechanism helps against acid containing gases, that are distructive to other plants.
As a result of its elasticity and its protection against becoming rotten and attacted from insects, it is frequently used in construction.


Description:

A tree, up to 25m in height with deep furrowed brown bark and prickly branches; young stems and peduncles finely pubescent; stipules frequently modified into stout woody thorns; leaflets 7 to 19, oval to elliptical, round or truncate and mucronate at the apex, glabrous or slightly pubescent while young, 2 to 4 cm long. Flowers white very fragrant, 2 to 2.5 cm long, manyin pendulous puberlous racemes; calyx finely pubescent, the upper lip truncate or broadly notched. Fruit linear - oblong, reddish brown, flat, 5 to 10 cm long.
     
Part used: Bark of root and stem.
     
Microscopical:

Root bark T.L.S. shows of a periderm with a phloem. 18 to 20 cells wide; a phellogen and a phelloderm, forming at places rhytodomes (enclosing secondary cortical and secondary phloem parenchyma between alternating zones of phellun); phloem rays spindle shaped, 2 to 8 cells, wide. Other element are phloem parenchyma sieve tubes, bast crystal fibres; branchysplereids at times among phloem parenchyma.
Stem bark - in R.L.S. shows a wide periderm, containing alternate zones of phellum, secondary cortical and phloem parenchyma (forming rhytodomes); numerous sclerenchyma and crystal fibres distributed all over, and branchysclecids towards the periphery, phloem rays at right angles to the phloem parenchyma, sieve tubes, bast and crystal fibres. T.L.S. phloem rays spindle shaped, 3 to 9 cells wide, parallel to the phloem parenchyma, sieve tubes, bast and crystal fibres; rhomboid crystals 16 - 24 U by 9.0 to 16U.

Botanical Description. -

This tree is also known as  Black Locust  and  Yellow Locust,  found in several parts of the United States, principally west of the mountains, being seldom found north of Pennsylvania, or in the Atlantic Southern States; blossoming in May. It grows from fifty to eighty feet high, and from one to four feet thick; the bark is rough and dark. The numerous branches are smooth and armed with prickles. The  leaves  are unequally pinnate, the  leaflets  are from eight to twelve pairs, ovate and oblong - ovate, thin, nearly sessile, and very smooth;  stipules  minute, bristle - form, partial. Flowers white, fragrant, showy, in numerous, axillary, pendulous racemes.  Calyx  fine, cleft, short, slightly two - lipped;  standard  large and rounded, turned back, scarcely longer than the wings and keel;  stamens,  diadelphous;  style,  bearded inside;  legume, or pod,  linear, compressed, two to four inches in length, and about six lines wide, margined on the seed bearing edge;  seeds,  several, small, brown, uniform. When young, the tree is armed with thorns, which disappear in its maturity.

..............................................................................................................................................................

Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a rapidly growing tree adapted to a wide range of soils. It does well in hot, dry areas and is very drought tolerant. Black locust's wide-spreading root system is useful in controlling erosion. The roots have nitrogen-fixing nodules that actually release nitrogen into the soil. This "fertilizing" characteristic is very beneficial on disturbed or sterile soils. Nitrogen released into the soil may actually stimulate growth of neighboring plants in multi-row plantings. Black locust is a long-lived tree that, at maturity, will be 40-75 feet tall. This tree grows best in center portions of windbreaks. Black locust has very dense wood and therefore is excellent for fence posts or firewood. Wood borers are killing this tree in some areas of southern Idaho; check with your county agent to see if borers are a problem in your area.
Wildlife benefit: Good roosting and nesting tree for hawks and owls. Bees actively visit the white flowers in spring.

Physical Characteristics

A decidious tree growing to 25m by 15m at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen from November to March. The scented flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. It can fix Nitrogen. It is noted for attracting wildlife. We rate it 3 out of 5 for usefulness.The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Habitats and Possible Locations

Woodland, Canopy.
Woods and thickets[43], especially in deep well-drained calcareous soils[149].

Range:    

Eastern N. America - Appalachian and Ozark mountain ranges. Naturalized in Britain[17].
Cultivation details
Succeeds in any well-drained soil, preferring one that is not too rich[1, 200]. Succeeds in dry barren sites, tolerating drought and atmospheric pollution[60, 200]. Succeeds in a hot dry position.

A fast-growing tree[188], it can begin to flower when only 6 years old, though 10 - 12 years is more normal[229]. The flowers are a rich source of nectar and are very fragrant[82] with a vanilla-like scent[245].

The branches are brittle and very liable to wind damage[200]. When plants are grown in rich soils they produce coarse and rank growth which is even more liable to wind damage[11, 200].

The plants sucker freely and often form dense thickets, the suckers have vicious thorns[226]. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value[188], some of these are thornless[226].

Any pruning should be done in late summer in order to reduce the risk of bleeding[200].

The leaves are rich in tannin and other substances which inhibit the growth of other plants[13]. A very greedy tree, tending to impoverish the soil[13]. (Although a legume, I believe it does not fix atmospheric nitrogen[K])

A very good bee plant[7, 13, 20, 201].

This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[88, 200].

Propagation
Seed - pre-soak for 48 hours in warm water and sow the seed in late winter in a cold frame[80]. A short stratification improves germination rates and time[80]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in the following summer. Other reports say that the seed can be sown in an outdoor seedbed in spring[78, 98]. The seed stores for over 10 years[113].

Suckers taken during the dormant season.
Scent
Flowers: Fresh
The flowers are very fragrant with a vanilla-like scent[245].

Physical Characteristics
A decidious tree growing to 25m by 15m at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen from November to March. The scented flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. It can fix Nitrogen. It is noted for attracting wildlife. We rate it 3 out of 5 for usefulness.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tollerate drought. It can tollerate atmospheric pollution.

Habitats and Possible Locations
Woodland, Canopy.

Edible Uses
Condiment; Drink; Flowers; Oil; Seed; Seedpod.
Seed - cooked[2, 55, 61]. Oily[161]. They are boiled and used like peas[183]. After boiling the seeds lose their acid taste[213]. The seed is about 4mm long and is produced in pods up to 10cm long that contain 4 - 8 seeds[82]. A nutritional analysis is available[218].

Young seedpods - cooked[105]. The pods contain a sweetish pulp that is safe to eat and is relished by small children[201].(This report is quite probably mistaken, having been confused with the honey locust, Gleditschia spp[K].)

A strong, narcotic and intoxicating drink is made from the skin of the fruit[13].

Piperonal is extracted from the plant, it is used as a vanilla substitute[105]. No further details.

All the above entries should be treated with some caution, see the notes at the top of the page regarding toxicity.

Flowers - cooked. A fragrant aroma, they are used in making jams and pancakes[7, 183]. They can also be made into a pleasant drink[183].

Cultivation details
Succeeds in any well-drained soil, prefering one that is not too rich[1, 200]. Succeeds in dry barren sites, tolerating drought and atmospheric pollution[60, 200]. Succeeds in a hot dry position.

A fast-growing tree[188], it can begin to flower when only 6 years old, though 10 - 12 years is more normal[229]. The flowers are a rich source of nectar and are very fragrant[82] with a vanilla-like scent[245].

The branches are brittle and very liable to wind damage[200]. When plants are grown in rich soils they produce coarse and rank growth which is even more liable to wind damage[11, 200].

The plants sucker freely and often form dense thickets, the suckers have vicious thorns[226]. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value[188], some of these are thornless[226].

Any pruning should be done in late summer in order to reduce the risk of bleeding[200].

The leaves are rich in tannin and other substances which inhibit the growth of other plants[13]. A very greedy tree, tending to impoverish the soil[13]. (Although a legume, I believe it does not fix atmospheric nitrogen[K])

A very good bee plant[7, 13, 20, 201].

This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[88, 200].

Propagation
Seed - pre-soak for 48 hours in warm water and sow the seed in late winter in a cold frame[80]. A short stratification improves germination rates and time[80]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in the following summer. Other reports say that the seed can be sown in an outdoor seedbed in spring[78, 98]. The seed stores for over 10 years[113].

Suckers taken during the dormant season.

Scent
Flowers: Fresh
The flowers are very fragrant with a vanilla-like scent[245].

Cultivars
''
No entries have been made for this species as yet.




Botanical Description. -

This tree is also known as  Black Locust  and  Yellow Locust,  found in several parts of the United States, principally west of the mountains, being seldom found north of Pennsylvania, or in the Atlantic Southern States; blossoming in May. It grows from fifty to eighty feet high, and from one to four feet thick; the bark is rough and dark. The numerous branches are smooth and armed with prickles. The  leaves  are unequally pinnate, the  leaflets  are from eight to twelve pairs, ovate and oblong - ovate, thin, nearly sessile, and very smooth;  stipules  minute, bristle - form, partial. Flowers white, fragrant, showy, in numerous, axillary, pendulous racemes.  Calyx  fine, cleft, short, slightly two - lipped;  standard  large and rounded, turned back, scarcely longer than the wings and keel;  stamens,  diadelphous;  style,  bearded inside;  legume, or pod,  linear, compressed, two to four inches in length, and about six lines wide, margined on the seed bearing edge;  seeds,  several, small, brown, uniform. When young, the tree is armed with thorns, which disappear in its maturity.

.............................................................................................................................................................

Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a rapidly growing tree adapted to a wide range of soils. It does well in hot, dry areas and is very drought tolerant. Black locust's wide-spreading root system is useful in controlling erosion. The roots have nitrogen-fixing nodules that actually release nitrogen into the soil. This "fertilizing" characteristic is very beneficial on disturbed or sterile soils. Nitrogen released into the soil may actually stimulate growth of neighboring plants in multi-row plantings. Black locust is a long-lived tree that, at maturity, will be 40-75 feet tall. This tree grows best in center portions of windbreaks. Black locust has very dense wood and therefore is excellent for fence posts or firewood. Wood borers are killing this tree in some areas of southern Idaho; check with your county agent to see if borers are a problem in your area.
Wildlife benefit: Good roosting and nesting tree for hawks and owls. Bees actively visit the white flowers in spring.

Physical Characteristics

A decidious tree growing to 25m by 15m at a fast rate. It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen from November to March. The scented flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. It can fix Nitrogen. It is noted for attracting wildlife. We rate it 3 out of 5 for usefulness.The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Habitats and Possible Locations

Woodland, Canopy.
Woods and thickets[43], especially in deep well-drained calcareous soils[149].

Range:    

Eastern N. America - Appalachian and Ozark mountain ranges. Naturalized in Britain[17].
Cultivation details
Succeeds in any well-drained soil, preferring one that is not too rich[1, 200]. Succeeds in dry barren sites, tolerating drought and atmospheric pollution[60, 200]. Succeeds in a hot dry position.

A fast-growing tree[188], it can begin to flower when only 6 years old, though 10 - 12 years is more normal[229]. The flowers are a rich source of nectar and are very fragrant[82] with a vanilla-like scent[245].

The branches are brittle and very liable to wind damage[200]. When plants are grown in rich soils they produce coarse and rank growth which is even more liable to wind damage[11, 200].

The plants sucker freely and often form dense thickets, the suckers have vicious thorns[226]. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value[188], some of these are thornless[226].

Any pruning should be done in late summer in order to reduce the risk of bleeding[200].

The leaves are rich in tannin and other substances which inhibit the growth of other plants[13]. A very greedy tree, tending to impoverish the soil[13]. (Although a legume, I believe it does not fix atmospheric nitrogen[K])

A very good bee plant[7, 13, 20, 201].

This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[88, 200].

Propagation
Seed - pre-soak for 48 hours in warm water and sow the seed in late winter in a cold frame[80]. A short stratification improves germination rates and time[80]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in the following summer. Other reports say that the seed can be sown in an outdoor seedbed in spring[78, 98]. The seed stores for over 10 years[113].

Suckers taken during the dormant season.
Scent
Flowers: Fresh
The flowers are very fragrant with a vanilla-like scent[245].
 

History and Habitat. This tree is indigenous to the central and southern belts of the United States, and so fully cultivated in the northern parts, that it now grows there spontaneously, blossoming in may and June. The inner bark of the roots, stem, and inner coating of the pods is sweet and mucilaginous. The seeds, upon pressure, yield a large quantity of oil. The are quite acrid, but lose this quality upon boiling; they then furnish a pleasant, nutritious article of food, much esteemed by the aborigines. The yellow locust should take first rank among ornamental trees to be planted by settlers in the West, not only on account of its beautiful foliage and fragrant flowers (points of great use for shade and honey.), but also for its invaluable wood. Locust is well known for its great durability, even when thoroughly exposed, and is thus exceedingly valuable for fence - posts, railroad ties and supports for structures generally.
     Robinia is not mentioned in the U. S. Ph. It has a place, but is not officinal, in the Eclectic Materia Medica.
     PART USED AND PREPARATION. The fresh bark of the young twigs is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one - sixth part of it and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well it is poured into a well - stoppered bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then separated by straining and filtering. Thus prepared, it has a beautiful, clear, reddish - orange color by transmitted light, a dry, sweetish taste peculiar to the inner bark, and a decided acid reaction.

 Description: A tree, up to 25m in height with deep furrowed brown bark and prickly branches; young stems and peduncles finely pubescent; stipules frequently modified into stout woody thorns; leaflets 7 to 19, oval to elliptical, round or truncate and mucronate at the apex, glabrous or slightly pubescent while young, 2 to 4 cm long. Flowers white very fragrant, 2 to 2.5 cm long, manyin pendulous puberlous racemes; calyx finely pubescent, the upper lip truncate or broadly notched. Fruit linear - oblong, reddish brown, flat, 5 to 10 cm long.
     Part used: Bark of root and stem.
     Microscopical: Root bark T.L.S. shows of a periderm with a phloem. 18 to 20 cells wide; a phellogen and a phelloderm, forming at places rhytodomes (enclosing secondary cortical and secondary phloem parenchyma between alternating zones of phellun); phloem rays spindle shaped, 2 to 8 cells, wide. Other element are phloem parenchyma sieve tubes, bast crystal fibres; branchysplereids at times among phloem parenchyma. Powder crystal fibres. 1050 to 2100U by 60 - 90U with rhomboid crystals 60 to 90U by 45 to 52.5U; sieve tubes 165 - 231 U by 26.9 U; branchysclereid 40 - 92U by32 - 60U.
     Stem bark - in R.L.S. shows a wide periderm, containing alternate zones of phellum, secondary cortical and phloem parenchyma (forming rhytodomes); numerous sclerenchyma and crystal fibres distributed all over, and branchysclecids towards the periphery, phloem rays at right angles to the phloem parenchyma, sieve tubes, bast and crystal fibres. T.L.S. phloem rays spindle shaped, 3 to 9 cells wide, parallel to the phloem parenchyma, sieve tubes, bast and crystal fibres; rhomboid crystals 16 - 24 U by 9.0 to 16U.
     Identification: (i) To 2 ml of alcoholic extract, add 0.5 ml of 10 per cent aqueous lead acetate solution; a yellowish brown colour is produced.
     (ii) To 2 ml of alcoholic extract, add a little magnesium metal powder and a few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid; the solution becomes red.
     (iii) To 2 ml of alcoholic extract, add 2 drops of alcoholic ferric chloride solution; the solution becomes green, turns black on standing.
     (iv) T.L.C. with benzene: pyridine: formic acid (30:9:5) as mobile phase and spraying with ammonia, seven spots visible under U.V. light at Rf. 0.93, 0.80, 0.71, 0.36, 0.20, 0.95, 0.59.
     Distribution: United States, Southern Pennysylvania to Illinois, extensively naturalised in Europe, cultivated in India (Simla).