Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Rubus idaeus

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Constituents

According to analysis by Seyffert (Archiv der Pharm., 1879, p. 324), garden raspberries yielded 9 per cent more juice than a wildgrowing variety. Acidity was about equal in both specimens (1.4 per cent). The cultivated variety contained 4.5 per cent of sugar, while the other had only 2.8 per cent (referred to fresh berries). According to Papst (see Dragendorff's Heilpflanzen, p. 278), the acids of raspberry juice are chiefly malic and citric acids; the sugar consists of laevulose (4.6 per cent) and dextrose (2.5 per cent). Raspberry camphor is a volatile solid, which forms in an aqueous distillate from pressed raspberries (Bley; see Husemann and Hilger, Pflanzenstoffe, p. 1005). [King's American Dispensatory]

The Raspberry contains a crystallizable fruit-sugar, a fragrant volatile oil, pectin, citric and malic acids, mineral salts, colouring matter and water. The ripe fruit is fragrant, subacid and cooling: it allays heat and thirst, and is not liable to acetous fermentation in the stomach.
Raspberry vinegar is an acid syrup made with the fruit-juice, sugar and white-wine vinegar, and when added to water forms an excellent cooling drink in summer, suitable also in feverish cases, where the acid is not an objection. It makes a useful gargle for relaxed, sore throat.
A home-made wine, brewed from the fermented juice of ripe Raspberries, is antiscrofulous, and Raspberry syrup dissolves the tartar of the teeth.
The fruit is also utilized for dyeing purposes.

Toxicology.

The Raspberry contains a crystallizable fruit-sugar, a fragrant volatile oil, pectin, citric and malic acids, mineral salts, colouring matter and water. The ripe fruit is fragrant, subacid and cooling: it allays heat and thirst, and is not liable to acetous fermentation in the stomach. [A Modern Herbal; Mrs. M. Grieve]


Curr Med Chem. 2004 Jun;11(11):1501-12. Related Articles, Links  

 
Therapeutic constituents and actions of Rubus species.

Patel AV, Rojas-Vera J, Dacke CG.

School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 2DT, UK. asmita.sautreau@port.ac.uk

Rubus species (family Rosaceae) have been cultivated for centuries for their fruits. These and other parts of the plants have been used traditionally for therapeutic purposes. This article highlights these and the potential they can offer. The constituents reported in the various species and those demonstrated to exhibit pharmacological properties have been reviewed. In the search for biologically active compounds, one of the most frequently documented species of the genus is the raspberry plant R. idaeus, the leaves of which have been used traditionally as a uterine relaxant and stimulant during confinement, for the treatment of diarrhoea and similar enteric disorders and as an astringent. Investigations of other Rubus species have been conducted in the last twenty-five years, and have shown possible application for a wide range of indications, including bacterial infections, anxiety, pain and inflammation.


 Life Sci. 2005 May 27;77(2):194-204.  
Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone.
Morimoto C, Satoh Y, Hara M, Inoue S, Tsujita T, Okuda H.
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Ehime University School of Medicine, Shigenobu-cho, Onsen-gun, Ehime 791-0295, Japan. chie@m.ehime-u.ac.jp

Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one; RK) is a major aromatic compound of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). The structure of RK is similar to the structures of capsaicin and synephrine, compounds known to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism. The present study was performed to clarify whether RK helps prevent obesity and activate lipid metabolism in rodents. To test the effect on obesity, our group designed the following in vivo experiments: 1) mice were fed a high-fat diet including 0.5, 1, or 2% of RK for 10 weeks; 2) mice were given a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and subsequently fed the same high-fat diet containing 1% RK for the next 5 weeks. RK prevented the high-fat-diet-induced elevations in body weight and the weights of the liver and visceral adipose tissues (epididymal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric). RK also decreased these weights and hepatic triacylglycerol content after they had been increased by a high-fat diet. RK significantly increased norepinephrine-induced lipolysis associated with the translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase from the cytosol to lipid droplets in rat epididymal fat cells. In conclusion, RK prevents and improves obesity and fatty liver. These effects appear to stem from the action of RK in altering the lipid metabolism, or more specifically, in increasing norepinephrine-induced lipolysis in white adipocytes.

 J Agric Food Chem. 2005 May 4;53(9):3313-20.  
Antioxidants in raspberry: on-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites.
Beekwilder J, Jonker H, Meesters P, Hall RD, van der Meer IM, Ric de Vos CH.
Plant Research International, Postbus 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. Jules.Beekwilder@wur.nl

The presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. In this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. Both developmental and genetic factors were assessed by comparing fruits from a single cultivar of different ripening stages and by comparing ripe fruits of 14 raspberry cultivars, respectively. The HPLC-separated antioxidant compounds were identified using HPLC-photodiode array coupled to mass spectrometry (quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry), using a reference lock mass for determining accurate masses. The dominant antioxidants could be classified as anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidin-like tannins. During fruit ripening, some anthocyanins were newly produced, while others, like cyanidin-3-glucoside, were already present early in fruit development. The level of tannins, both ellagitannins and proanthocyanidin-like tannins, was reduced strongly during fruit ripening. Among the 14 cultivars, major differences (>20-fold) were observed in the levels of pelagonidin type anthocyanins and some proanthocyanidin type tannins. The content of ellagitannins varied approximately 3-fold. The findings presented here suggest that the content of individual health-promoting compounds varies significantly in raspberry, due to both developmental and genetic factors. This information will assist in the future development and identification of raspberry lines with enhanced health-promoting properties.