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Part used: Rhizome.
Plantae; Spermatophyta, Angiospermae - Flowering Plants; Dicotyledonae; Caryophylliidae; Polygonales; Polygonaceae - Smartweed / Knotweed Family
Houghton, Joslin, Paine, Bayard, Rhees and Co., American Homoeopathic Review
History and authority: Proved by Houghton; Allen: Encyclop. Mat. Med., Vol. VIII, 417; Hering; Guiding Symptoms, Vol. IX, 125.
Description of the substance
United States. introduced into northen America, Mexico, Chile and New Zealand.
Description: A Smooth, perennial herb, with deep, spindle - shaped, yellow root. Stem 90 to 120 cm high, angular, furrowed, somewhat zigzag. Leaves lanceolate, petiolate, whorled, acaute, wavy - curled, smooth and light green; the radical leaves longpetioled, truncate, or scarcely heart - shaped at the base; the cauline, accute at both ends and nearly sessile. Flowers bisexual, green, small, numerous and on short, rather stout pedicels, forming crowded and dense whorled racemes. Inner fruiting perianth segments, 4 by 3 mm, green, cordate or truncate, margin entire, at least one lobe possessing large tubercle. The nut 2.5 mm by 3.0 mm, ovoid, pointed and slimy brown.
Microscopical: Light brown cork cells and a collapsed phellogen. Hypodermis with several rows of collenchymatous cells. Cortex broad, parenchymatous with thin walled cells, some containing starch grains, others rosette crystals of calcium oxalate; occasional leaf - trace bundles present. Fibro - vascular bundles small, in a circle with few tracheids and fibres. Pith parenchymatous, some cells containing starch grains, other rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.
Range: Belgium; Brazil; Chile; China; Europe; Haiti; Iraq; Turkey; USA
Habitat: Growing almost anywhere, it is found especially in grassy places, waste ground, roadsides and near sand dunes and is a serious weed of agriculture. Succeeds in most soils, preferring a moist moderately fertile well-drained soil in a sunny position.
The name Dock is applied to a widespread tribe of broad-leaved wayside weeds, having roots possessing astringent qualities united in some with a cathartic principle, rendering them valuable as substitutes for Rhubarb, a plant of the same family.
Although now, in common with the Sorrels, assigned to the genus Rumex, the Docks were formerly ranked as members of the genus Lapathum, this name being derived from the Greek word, lapazein (to cleanse), an allusion to the medicinal virtues of these plants as purgatives, the word still surviving in the name of one of the species, Rumex Hydrolapathum.
" seedling cotyledons are oblong, while the first true leaves are ovate and petioled
" a thick fleshy taproot and a rosette form in the first year
" the basal leaves are long and narrow with wavy margins
" the mature plant has erect stems up to 1.5 meters tall which have a smooth surface and thickened nodes
" a papery structure called an ochrea is found at the base of each leaf
" at maturity, the entire plant turns a reddish-brown color
" stem leaves are alternate, sessile, with toothed margins
" coarse hairs on leaves
" stiff hairs on stems (especially on lower parts)
" strong taproot has a radish taste and odor
Life cycle: perennial
" reproduces by seed
" seeds germinate in early spring, late summer, or fall
" young plants develop into a rosette - may overwinter as a rosette
" pod-like fruit is constricted between seeds
" a single plant may produce aproximately 160 seeds
" flowers June - September
Habitat/ Crops associated with:
" grows best on nutrient-rich sandy and loam soils
" associated with a wide range of horticultural and agronomic crops