Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Solanum tuberosum aegrotans

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Late Blight Symptoms

On potato tubers : Infected potatoes have shallow, brownish or purplish lesions on the surface of the tuber. If you cut across the surface of these infected areas, you'll see a reddish-brown, dry, granular rot that extends up to half an inch into the flesh. Late blight lesions can serve as pathways for other tuber diseases to enter, so late blight symptoms can sometimes be obscured by symptoms of other diseases. Plant only sound, blemish free tubers to avoid late blight and other tuber-borne diseases. Don't allow any discarded tubers to sprout and possibly produce late blight spores.

On potato plants :Late blight lesions can occur on both leaves and stems. The first appearance of lesions commonly occurs after periods of wet weather. Black lesions appear within 3-7 days of infection of leaves. Under humid conditions, delicate, whitish fungal spore producing structures are produced at the edge of the lesion, particularly on the underside of the leaf. Lesions turn brown when they dry up,and are often surrounded by a halo of gray-green tissue. Once lesions dry up, the white spore masses will not be visible. To help identify late blight if outdoor conditions are not humid enough for spores to be produced, you can place suspect leaves or stems in a closed container with a damp paper towel. Check the leaves after about 12 hours to see if the delicate, white fungal material is growing from the tissue at the edge of the lesion. On stems, late blight causes brown, greasy looking lesions that frequently appear first at the junction between the stem and leaf, or at the cluster of leaves at the top of the stem.

Teratology. 1990 Oct;42(4):405-12. Related Articles, Links  

Fallacies of international and national comparisons of disease occurrence in the epidemiology of neural tube defects.

Borman B, Cryer C.

National Health Statistics Centre, Wellington School of Medicine, New Zealand.

Despite extensive research, little progress has been made in elucidating the etiologies of anencephalus and spina bifida. International and national distributions of disease occurrence have often been used as a basis for generating etiological hypotheses (e.g., potato blight, tea consumption, and zinc deficiency hypotheses). However, few of the epidemiological studies of neural tube defects (NTDs) have been conducted with scientific rigor in design, and most are of dubious validity, often with low precision in the estimates. This paper shows that the accepted geographic patterns of NTDs may be attributable to variations in the validity of studies used to describe these patterns. The nonuniformity in the duration and diligence of case ascertainment, the lack of a standardized nomenclature and classification, and the definition of the denominator remain principal problems in evaluating the epidemiology of NTDs. For example, the distinction between incidence and prevalence is not always made, and there is no consistency in the placement of the gestational boundary between late fetal deaths and spontaneous abortions. Findings are compared from studies conducted at different times, without due regard to the effect of secular trends, and using studies that have varying levels of case ascertainment. In etiological research, it is important to perform studies that are accurate and precise, but the literature used to define the spatial distribution of NTDs has often been accepted without due regard to the effect of these factors.