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All terpenes are local irritants. Ingestion produces GI signs and symptoms, aspiration, and pulmonary toxicity; absorption is associated with alteration in mental status, ranging from coma to seizures. Renal toxicity has been reported. Following ingestion, pine oil may be concentrated in the lungs, resulting in chemical pneumonitis without evidence of aspiration.
Absorption may begin in the oral cavity. Terpenes are oxidized by cytochrome P450, conjugated principally with glucuronic acid in the liver, and are excreted by the kidney. The excretory product of turpentine has a characteristic odor of violets.
Symptom onset is rapid, often within 5-30 minutes following ingestion.
Mortality/Morbidity: Mortality is related to central nervous system (CNS) depression or to the severity of pneumonia if the substance is aspirated. The mortality rate is extremely low considering the number of reported exposures. No fatalities were reported in any of these exposures.
Age: Most exposures occur as the result of accidental ingestions in children. These ingestions are generally minor, primarily resulting in minor GI symptoms and signs.
Turpentine oil is found in some floor and furniture waxes and polishes, some paint brush cleaners.
Poisoning from an ingestion of turpentine oil, symptoms:
· fullness of the head, or
· giddiness, with a feeling similar to that of intoxication, or a state resembling trance
· Eyes, ears, nose, and throat
· Severe pain in the throat , swelling of throat (which may also cause breathing difficulty)
· Severe pain or burning in the nose, eyes, ears, lips, or tongue
· Loss of vision
· Severe abdominal pain
· Burns of the esophagus
· Vomiting blood
· Blood in the stool
· Urinay tract:
irritation of the kidneys and bladder
· painful dyuria
· bloody urine, scalding urine
· Heart and blood vessels
· Hypotension develops rapidly leading to
· Breathing difficulty (from inhalation)
· Necrosis of the skin or underlying tissues
§ The oil is a stimulant, arousing the stomach and circulation, strongly influencing the kidneys.
§ It is readily absorbed unchanged and has a marked contractile action upon the blood vessels giving it the property of a haemostatic.
§ In large doses it has a depressant action on the nervous system, leading even to coma and total abolition of reflex action.
§ The drug is excreted partly by the bronchi which it tends to disinfect, partly in the urine. Glycuronic acid also appears in the urine. A small portion of the drug is absorbed by the unbroken skin, in which it may give rise to an erythematous rash.
§ It gives to the urine, the exhalation and the skin its peculiar odor of violets.
Biblio (3) (4)