Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Tussilago farfara

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Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Nov;31(22):1837-41. Links
[Phytochemical and pharmacological research progress in Tussilago farfara][Article in Chinese]
Liu KY, Zhang TJ, Gao WY, Chen HX, Zheng YN.
The College of Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Tussilago farfara contained the chemical constitutents including terpenes, flavonoids, and alkanoids. It has been used for the relief of coughs and as an expectorant, blood pressure raiser, platelet activating factor inhibitor and anti-inflammatory agents. This paper reviewed the phytochemical and pharmacological research progress in T. farfara, including the chemical ingredients, the pharmaceutical activities and the security evaluation aiming at its toxicity. The problems at present and the reseach direction for the future on T. farfara have been put forward.

 Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Mar;28(3):455-60.  Links
Neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of the ethyl acetate fraction prepared from Tussilago farfara L.Cho J, Kim HM, Ryu JH, Jeong YS, Lee YS, Jin C.
Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, Korea.

The flower buds of Tussilago farfara L. (Compositae) have been traditionally used in Oriental medicine for the treatment of bronchitis and asthma. The extract of T. farfara was reported to exhibit antiinflammatory actions by inhibiting arachidonic acid metabolism and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction on various types of neuronal cell damage induced in primary cultured rat cortical cells. Its antioxidant activities were also evaluated by cell-free bioassays. We found that the EA fraction potently inhibited the neuronal damage induced by arachidonic acid. We also found that it significantly attenuated the neuronal damage induced by spermine NONOate, a stable NO generator. In addition, it inhibited the A(beta(25-35))-induced neurotoxicity and glutamate- or N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced excitotoxicity. It was found that the oxidative neuronal damage induced by H2O2, xanthine/xanthine oxidase, or Fe(2+)/ascorbic acid was also inhibited by the EA fraction. Furthermore, it was shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation initiated by Fe(2+)/ascorbic acid in rat brain homogenates, and scavenge DPPH radicals. This is the first demonstration of neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of T. farfara. Although complex mechanisms may be involved in the neuroprotective actions, T. farfara may be useful for the management of neurodegenerative disorders associated with inflammation, A(beta), excitotoxicity, and/or oxidative stress.

Gen Pharmacol. 1988;19(2):261-3. Links
Evaluation of tussilagone: a cardiovascular-respiratory stimulant isolated from Chinese herbal medicine.Li YP, Wang YM.
Department of Pharmacology, Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

1. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has long used Kuandong Hua (Tussilago farfara L.) in the treatment of various respiratory conditions. 2. Recently, it has been found that an extract of this plant (7R,14R)-14-acetoxy-7-[(2'E)-3'-methylpent-2'-enoyloxy ]-oplopanone, is a potent cardiovascular and respiratory stimulant. 3. This compound has been named Tussilagone (TUS) and when administered intravenously, has been shown to produce an instant and dose dependent pressor effect in anesthetized dogs (0.02-0.3 mg/kg), cats (0.02-0.5 mg/kg), and rats (0.4-4 mg/kg). 4. This pressor effect is similar to that of dopamine; however, no tachyphylaxis has been observed. 5. In addition to its cardiovascular effects TUS produced a significant stimulation of respiration in experimental animals. 6. The acute intravenous LD50 in mice of this compound was 28.9 mg/kg.