Requests: If you need specific information on this remedy - e.g. a proving or a case info on toxicology or whatsoever, please post a message in the Request area www.homeovision.org/forum/ so that all users may contribute.
Minerals; Inorganic; Vanadium-Group
Description of the substance
Vanadium is a soft and ductile, bright white metal. It has good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily at about 933 K. Vanadium has good structural strength and a low fission neutron cross section, making it useful in nuclear applications. Although definitely a metal, it shares with Chromium and Manganese the property of having valency oxides with acid properties.
Common oxidation states of vanadium include +2, +3, +4 and +5. A popular experiment with ammonium vanadate (NH4VO3), reducing the compound with zinc metal, can demonstrate colorimetrically all four of these vanadium oxidation states. A +1 oxidation state is also rarely seen.
Toxicol Lett. 2004 Apr 21;150(2):135-43.
Vanadium--an element of atypical biological significance.
Mukherjee B, Patra B, Mahapatra S, Banerjee P, Tiwari A, Chatterjee M.
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India. email@example.com
The biological image of the transition element vanadium ferments a great deal of contradiction-from toxicity to essentiality. Importance of this element as micro-nutrient is yet to be unequivocally accepted by biologists and biomedical scientists. In spite of toxicity, it seems interesting to analyze the different biological roles of the element. Vanadium compounds have been proven to be associated with various implications in the pathogenesis of some human diseases and also in maintaining normal body functions. Salts of vanadium interfere with an essential array of enzymatic systems such as different ATPases, protein kinases, ribonucleases and phosphatases. While vanadium deficiency accounts for several physiological malfunctionings including thyroid, glucose and lipid metabolism, etc., several genes are regulated by this element or by its compounds, which include genes for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), activator protein-1 (AP-1), ras, c-raf-1, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), p53, nuclear factors-kappaB, etc. All these seem to be not far from its recognition as an element of pharmacological and nutritional significance, which is revealed through its increasing therapeutic uses in diabetes. Vanadium is also emerging as a potent anti-carcinogenic agent. This review summarizes the developments related to vanadium biology as a whole by analyzing the general biochemical functions of vanadium
In biology, a vanadium atom is an essential component of some enzymes, particularly the vanadium nitrogenase used by some nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Vanadium is essential to ascidians or sea squirts in Vanadium Chromagen Proteins. The concentration of vanadium in their blood is more than 100 times higher than the concentration of vanadium in the seawater around them. Rats and chickens are also known to require vanadium in very small amounts and deficiencies result in reduced growth and impaired reproduction.
Administration of oxovanadium compounds has been shown to alleviate diabetes mellitus symptoms in certain animal models and humans. Much like the chromium effect on sugar metabolism, the mechanism of this effect is unknown.
Vanadium is never found unbound in nature but it does occur in about 65 different minerals among which are patronite (VS4), vanadinite [Pb5(VO4)3Cl], and carnotite [K2(UO2)2(VO4)2.3H2O]. Vanadium is also present in bauxite, and in carbon containing deposits such as crude oil, coal, oil shale and tar sands. The spectra of vanadium has also been detected in light from the sun and some other stars.
Much of the vanadium metal being produced is now made by calcium reduction of V2O5 in a pressure vessel. Vanadium is usually recovered as a by-product or co-product, and so world resources of the element are not really indicative of available supply.
Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is used as a catalyst, dye and color-fixer. It is extremely toxic if inhaled, and dangerous for the environment.
Vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4), also called vanadium(IV) sulfate oxide hydrate, is used as a relatively controversial dietary supplement, primarily for increasing insulin levels and body-building. Whether it works for the latter purpose has not been proven, and there is some evidence that athletes who take it are merely experiencing a placebo effect. It is toxic in high doses