Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Xanthium spinosum

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http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/photos/xansp01.jpg

http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/xantspi.rtf

http://www.puc.edu/Faculty/Gilbert_Muth/Xanthium.htm

http://www.wa.gov/agr/weedboard/weed_info/spinycocklebur.html

http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?where-genre=Plant&where-taxon=Xanthium+spinosum


CITED REFERENCES
Abrams, L.  1940.  Illustrated flora of the Pacific States.  Stanford University Press, Stanford.  4 volumes.

Alcorn, J.L.  1975.  A new disease of Noogoora burr.  Queensland Agricultural J. 101:162.

Australia Dept. of Agriculture, Agronomy Division.  1974.  Bathurst Burr, Xanthium spinosum, declared noxious need.  Tasmanian J. Agric. 45:207-209.

Baloch, G.M. and M.A. Ghani.  1969.  The present status of biological control of Xanthium (Compositae).  PANS 15:154-159.

Baloch, G.M., A.I. Mohyuddin, and M.A. Ghani.  1968.  Xanthium  strumarium L.--insects and other organisms with it in West Pakistan. Commonwealth Institute Biological Control Technical Bulletin 10:103-111.

Cole, F.R.  1969.  The Flies of western North America.  University of California Press, Berkeley.

Cole, R.J., B.P. Stuart, J.A. Lansden, and R.H. Cox.  1980.  Isolation and redefinition of the toxic agent from cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium).  J. Agric. Food Chemistry 28:1330-1332.

Conners, I.L.  1967.  An annotated index of plant diseases in Canada. Agric. Canada Res. Br. Publication 1251.  Ottawa, Ontario.  381 pp.

Crocker, W.  1906.  Pole of seed coat in delayed germination.  Botanical Gazette 42:265-291.

Cutler, H.G.  1983.  Carboxyatractyloside: a compound from Xanthium strumarium and Atractylis gummifera with plant growth inhibiting properties.  The probable "Inhibitor A."  J. Natural Products 46:609-613.

Davis, W.E.  1930.  The development of dormancy in seed of cocklebur (Xanthium).  American Journal of Botany 17:77-87.

Deshpande, K.  1982.  Biocontrol of Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Xanthium strumarium L. through phytopathogens.  P. 48 in Abstracts of Papers, Annual Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science.  

Hasan, S.  1974.  Recent advances in the use of plant pathogens as biocontrol agent of weeds.  Pest Articles and News Summaries 20:437-443.

Hilgendorf, J.H. and R.D. Goeden.  1983. Phytophagous insect faunas of spiny clotbur, Xanthium spinosum, and cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium. Environmental Entomology 12:404-411.

Holm, L.G., D.L. Pluncknett, J.V. Pancho, and J.P. Herberger.  1977. The world's worst weeds.  University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu.  609 pp.

Jadhav, A.N. and R.B. Somani.  1978.  puccinia xanthii--a report from India.  Indian Phytopathology 31:369-371.

Jepson, W.L.  1951.  Manual of the flowering plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.  1238 pp.

Julien, M.H., J.E. Boradbent, and N.C. Matthews.  1979.  Effects of puccinia xanthii on Xanthium strumarium ∫(Compositae).  Entomophaga 24:29-34.

Kelly, S.G.  1931.  The control of Noogoora and Bathurst burr by insects.  J. Counc. Sci. Ind. Res. (Australia) 4:161-172.

King, L.J.  1966.  Weeds of the world, biology and control. Interscience Publications, New York.  526 pp.

Kingsbury, J.M.  1964.  Poisonous plants of the U.S. and Canada. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.  626 pp.

Love, D. and P. Dansereau.  1959.  Biosystematic studies on Xanthium: taxonomic appraisal and ecological status.  Canadian J. Botany 37:173-208.

McHenry, J.  1985.  University of California, Davis, CA.  Personal communication.  

Munz, P.A. and D.D. Keck.  1973.  A California flora and supplement. University of California Press, Berkeley.  1905 pp.

Nikandrow, A., G.J. Weidemann, and B.A. Auld.  1984.  Mycoherbicide co-operative project.  P. 129 in R.W. Madin (ed.), Proceedings of the 7th Australian Weeds Conference.  Vol. 1.  Perth, Australia.

Parsons, W.T.  1973.  Noxious weeds of Victoria.  Inkata Press, Ltd., Melbourne, Australia.  300 pp.

Polunin, N. (ed.)  1966.  Weeds of the world:  biology and control. Grampian Press, Inc., London.  526 pp.

Redosevich, S.R. and J.S. Holt.  1984.  Weed ecology.  John Wiley & Sons, New York.  265 pp.

Robbins, W.W.  1940.  Alien plants growing without cultivation in California.  California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 637:1-128.

Robbins, W.W., M.K. Bellue, and W.S. Ball.  1970.  Weeds of California. State of California, Dept. of Agriculture.  547 pp.

Wapshere, A.J.  1974.  An ecological study of an attempt at biological control of Noogoora burr (Xanthium strumarium).  Australian J. Agric. Research 25:275-92.

Weaver, S.E. and M.J. Lechowicz.  1983.  The biology of Canadian weeds. 56. Xanthium strumarium L.  Canadian J. Plant Science 63:211-225.

Wilson, F.  1960.  A review of the biological control of insects and weeds in Australia and Australian New Guinea.  Commonwealth Institute Biological Control Technical Communication No. 1:1-102.

OTHER (UNCITED) REFERENCES
Gaines, X.M. and D.G. Swan.  1972.  Weeds of eastern Washington and adjacent areas.  Camp-Na-Bor-Lee Association, Davenport, Washington. 349 pp.

Hilgendorf, J.H. and R.D. Goeden.  1982.  Phytophagous insects reported worldwide from the noxious weeds spiny clotbur, Xanthium spinosum, and cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium.  Entomological Society of America 28:147-152.