Substances & Homeopatic Remedies

Xanthium spinosum

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Abrams, L.  1940.  Illustrated flora of the Pacific States.  Stanford University Press, Stanford.  4 volumes.

Alcorn, J.L.  1975.  A new disease of Noogoora burr.  Queensland Agricultural J. 101:162.

Australia Dept. of Agriculture, Agronomy Division.  1974.  Bathurst Burr, Xanthium spinosum, declared noxious need.  Tasmanian J. Agric. 45:207-209.

Baloch, G.M. and M.A. Ghani.  1969.  The present status of biological control of Xanthium (Compositae).  PANS 15:154-159.

Baloch, G.M., A.I. Mohyuddin, and M.A. Ghani.  1968.  Xanthium  strumarium L.--insects and other organisms with it in West Pakistan. Commonwealth Institute Biological Control Technical Bulletin 10:103-111.

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Cole, R.J., B.P. Stuart, J.A. Lansden, and R.H. Cox.  1980.  Isolation and redefinition of the toxic agent from cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium).  J. Agric. Food Chemistry 28:1330-1332.

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Crocker, W.  1906.  Pole of seed coat in delayed germination.  Botanical Gazette 42:265-291.

Cutler, H.G.  1983.  Carboxyatractyloside: a compound from Xanthium strumarium and Atractylis gummifera with plant growth inhibiting properties.  The probable "Inhibitor A."  J. Natural Products 46:609-613.

Davis, W.E.  1930.  The development of dormancy in seed of cocklebur (Xanthium).  American Journal of Botany 17:77-87.

Deshpande, K.  1982.  Biocontrol of Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Xanthium strumarium L. through phytopathogens.  P. 48 in Abstracts of Papers, Annual Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science.  

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Hilgendorf, J.H. and R.D. Goeden.  1983. Phytophagous insect faunas of spiny clotbur, Xanthium spinosum, and cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium. Environmental Entomology 12:404-411.

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Love, D. and P. Dansereau.  1959.  Biosystematic studies on Xanthium: taxonomic appraisal and ecological status.  Canadian J. Botany 37:173-208.

McHenry, J.  1985.  University of California, Davis, CA.  Personal communication.  

Munz, P.A. and D.D. Keck.  1973.  A California flora and supplement. University of California Press, Berkeley.  1905 pp.

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Robbins, W.W., M.K. Bellue, and W.S. Ball.  1970.  Weeds of California. State of California, Dept. of Agriculture.  547 pp.

Wapshere, A.J.  1974.  An ecological study of an attempt at biological control of Noogoora burr (Xanthium strumarium).  Australian J. Agric. Research 25:275-92.

Weaver, S.E. and M.J. Lechowicz.  1983.  The biology of Canadian weeds. 56. Xanthium strumarium L.  Canadian J. Plant Science 63:211-225.

Wilson, F.  1960.  A review of the biological control of insects and weeds in Australia and Australian New Guinea.  Commonwealth Institute Biological Control Technical Communication No. 1:1-102.

Gaines, X.M. and D.G. Swan.  1972.  Weeds of eastern Washington and adjacent areas.  Camp-Na-Bor-Lee Association, Davenport, Washington. 349 pp.

Hilgendorf, J.H. and R.D. Goeden.  1982.  Phytophagous insects reported worldwide from the noxious weeds spiny clotbur, Xanthium spinosum, and cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium.  Entomological Society of America 28:147-152.